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Novalis's Personal Details

Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, better known as Novalis, was a German poet, author, and philosopher.

InformationDetail
BirthdayMay 2, 1772
Died onMarch 25, 1801
NationalityGerman
FamousPhilosophers, Poets, Intellectuals & Academics, Philosophers, Poets
Known asGeorg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg
Universities
  • Lutheran grammar school Eisleben
Cause of deathTuberculosis
Birth PlaceOberwiederstedt, Electorate of Saxony, Germany
GenderMale
FatherHeinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg (1738–1814)
MotherAuguste Bernhardine von Böltzig (1749–1818)
Sun SignTaurus
Born inOberwiederstedt, Electorate of Saxony, Germany
Famous asPhilosopher & Poet
Died at Age28

// Famous Poets

Novalis's photo

Who is Novalis?

Novalis was amongst the most renowned poet, author and philosophers of the early German romanticism era. Mostly known to the world by his pseudonym of Novalis, Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg gave a deep insight of all subjects and made significant contributions in the field of aesthetics and philosophy of art in his short life of 28 years. His works have touched various issues such as epistemology, moral theory, political philosophy, problems of interpretation, philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, and so on. His theories and work greatly influenced the later Romantic thought. Novalis was widely read and equipped himself with knowledge in all sorts of subjects’ right from science, law, philosophy, politics and political economy. It was the notes that he made on his field of knowledge that he later used to draw connection and provide an encyclopaedic overview of art, religion and science. In his short existence, he lived to see only a couple of his works being published. It was posthumously that many of his works, some of which were unfinished while some were compiled from the notes that he made, were published.

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Childhood & Early Life

Novalis was born as Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg at Oberwiederstedt manor, in the Harz Mountains to Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg and Auguste Bernhardine von B�ltzig.

His father was an avid follower of pietism and a member of the Moravian (Herrnhuter) Church. He was the second of the eleven children born to the couple.

Coming from Low German nobility, he was christened Georg Philipp Friedrich in the church. It was later on that he took on the pseudonym Novalis from ‘de Novali’ a name that his family formerly used.

He was initially home schooled by private tutors. It was only later that he attended the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben, learning rhetoric and ancient literature.

From 1790, he studied law at the University of Jena. It was there that he befriended Friedrich von Schiller. He then moved to Leipzig for studies where he became acquainted with Friedrich von Schlegel. Schlegel first introduced him to the philosophies of Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

He finally completed his studies from Wittenberg in 1794. Other people that he met and became friends with during his educational journey were Goethe, Herder, Jean Paul, Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Career

In 1794, he started working as an actuary for August Coelestin Just, who was his friend and superior. He worked there for two years until January 1796 when he took up the position of an auditor for the Saxon government saltworks at Weissenfels.

Meanwhile, from 1795 to 1796, he underwent a detailed analysis of the scientific doctrine of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, who changed his view and thinking. He carried Fichte’s work and doctrine further by transforming the latter’s view and hence laying the foundation for his Liebesreligion, religion of love.

In 1797, circumventing from the deep emotional loss of his fianc�e, he got himself enrolled at the Mining Academy of Frieberg in Saxony. It was there that he befriended Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner who in turn trained him in the study of geology.

At Frieberg, he guided himself to learn a number of subjects such as mining, mathematics, chemistry, biology, history and philosophy. It was while studying these subjects that he collected material for his famous encyclopaedia projects.

His first ever written matter was published in 1798 in the Athen�um magazine under the title, ‘Bl�thenstaub’ (Pollen). It was for this publication that he for the first time used his pseudonym, ‘Novalis’.

In the same year, he came up with his second publication, which was titled ‘Glauben and Liebe’ (Faith and Love). The work much like his first publication attempted to unite poetry, philosophy and science.

The following year, i.e. in 1799, he not just met Ludwig Tieck but other authors of the Jena Romanticism. Meanwhile, he did not give up on his work at the Weissenfels and worked in the management of salt mines.

Later the same year, he was promoted to the position of an assessor and the director of the salt mines. In 1800, he was appointed as the Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann for the district of Thuringia, a position which is equivalent to the present-day magistrate.

In 1800, he penned a six prose poem interspersed with verse, entitled, ‘Hymnen an die Nacht’. Through it, he expressed his deep embedded grief and sorrow after the death of his fianc�e Sophie. He worked on theme of life and death which according to him were entwined concepts. The work is today considered as the most important poetry of the German early Romanticism.

Personal Life & Legacy

In 1794, he first met Sophie von K�hn and fell in love with her. The following year in March, when Kuhn turned thirteen, they were formally engaged to marry.

Tragedy struck the life of the much-in-love couple as Sophie, who was suffering from tuberculosis, breathed her last in March 1979. He was flabbergasted and went into a state of mourning and suffering.

Recovering from his loss, he got engaged to Julie von Charpentier in December 1798. She was the daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, a professor in Freiberg

In August 1799, he was struck with tuberculosis. After months of enduring the pain of the disease, he breathed his last on March 25, 1801 in Weissenfels. He was buried in the old cemetery

While some of his works such as Pollen, Faith and Love and Hymns to the Night were published during his life, his unfinished novels such as ‘Heinrich von Ofterdingen’ and ‘The Novices at Sais’ were published posthumously.

His unfinished political speech and essay ‘Die Christenheit oder Europa’ (Christendom or Europe) was published posthumously.

His notes from 1798 to 1799 were collected and later clubbed to form the work, ‘Das allgemeine Brouillon’ which is published in English as ‘Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia’. The notes drew a connection in the sense of encyclopaedic overview of art, religion and science.

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Novalis biography timelines

  • // 2nd May 1772
    Novalis was born as Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg at Oberwiederstedt manor, in the Harz Mountains to Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg and Auguste Bernhardine von B�ltzig.
  • // 1790
    From 1790, he studied law at the University of Jena. It was there that he befriended Friedrich von Schiller. He then moved to Leipzig for studies where he became acquainted with Friedrich von Schlegel. Schlegel first introduced him to the philosophies of Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
  • // 1794
    He finally completed his studies from Wittenberg in 1794. Other people that he met and became friends with during his educational journey were Goethe, Herder, Jean Paul, Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
  • // 1794 To 1796
    In 1794, he started working as an actuary for August Coelestin Just, who was his friend and superior. He worked there for two years until January 1796 when he took up the position of an auditor for the Saxon government saltworks at Weissenfels.
  • // 1794 To 1795
    In 1794, he first met Sophie von K�hn and fell in love with her. The following year in March, when Kuhn turned thirteen, they were formally engaged to marry.
  • // 1795 To 1796
    Meanwhile, from 1795 to 1796, he underwent a detailed analysis of the scientific doctrine of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, who changed his view and thinking. He carried Fichte’s work and doctrine further by transforming the latter’s view and hence laying the foundation for his Liebesreligion, religion of love.
  • // 1797
    In 1797, circumventing from the deep emotional loss of his fianc�e, he got himself enrolled at the Mining Academy of Frieberg in Saxony. It was there that he befriended Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner who in turn trained him in the study of geology.
  • // Mar 1797
    Tragedy struck the life of the much-in-love couple as Sophie, who was suffering from tuberculosis, breathed her last in March 1979. He was flabbergasted and went into a state of mourning and suffering.
  • // 1798
    His first ever written matter was published in 1798 in the Athen�um magazine under the title, ‘Bl�thenstaub’ (Pollen). It was for this publication that he for the first time used his pseudonym, ‘Novalis’.
  • // 1798 To 1799
    His notes from 1798 to 1799 were collected and later clubbed to form the work, ‘Das allgemeine Brouillon’ which is published in English as ‘Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia’. The notes drew a connection in the sense of encyclopaedic overview of art, religion and science.
  • // Dec 1798
    Recovering from his loss, he got engaged to Julie von Charpentier in December 1798. She was the daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, a professor in Freiberg
  • // 1799
    The following year, i.e. in 1799, he not just met Ludwig Tieck but other authors of the Jena Romanticism. Meanwhile, he did not give up on his work at the Weissenfels and worked in the management of salt mines.
  • // Aug 1799 To 25th Mar 1801
    In August 1799, he was struck with tuberculosis. After months of enduring the pain of the disease, he breathed his last on March 25, 1801 in Weissenfels. He was buried in the old cemetery
  • // 1800
    Later the same year, he was promoted to the position of an assessor and the director of the salt mines. In 1800, he was appointed as the Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann for the district of Thuringia, a position which is equivalent to the present-day magistrate.
  • // 1800
    In 1800, he penned a six prose poem interspersed with verse, entitled, ‘Hymnen an die Nacht’. Through it, he expressed his deep embedded grief and sorrow after the death of his fianc�e Sophie. He worked on theme of life and death which according to him were entwined concepts. The work is today considered as the most important poetry of the German early Romanticism.

// Famous Philosophers

Novalis's FAQ

  • What is Novalis birthday?

    Novalis was born at 1772-05-02

  • When was Novalis died?

    Novalis was died at 1801-03-25

  • Where was Novalis died?

    Novalis was died in Weißenfels, Germany

  • Which age was Novalis died?

    Novalis was died at age 28

  • Where is Novalis's birth place?

    Novalis was born in Oberwiederstedt, Electorate of Saxony, Germany

  • What is Novalis nationalities?

    Novalis's nationalities is German

  • What was Novalis universities?

    Novalis studied at Lutheran grammar school Eisleben

  • What is Novalis's cause of dead?

    Novalis dead because of Tuberculosis

  • Who is Novalis's father?

    Novalis's father is Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg (1738–1814)

  • Who is Novalis's mother?

    Novalis's mother is Auguste Bernhardine von Böltzig (1749–1818)

  • What is Novalis's sun sign?

    Novalis is Taurus

  • How famous is Novalis?

    Novalis is famouse as Philosopher & Poet