Antonin Artaud - Theatre Director, Birthday and Personal Life

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Antonin Artaud's Personal Details

Antonin Artaud was one of the most influential playwrights of the 20th century

InformationDetail
BirthdaySeptember 4, 1896
Died onMarch 4, 1948
NationalityFrench
FamousDramatist, Theatre Director, Film & Theater Personalities, Actors, Theater Personalities, Poets, Playwrights, Essayists
Known asAntoine Marie Joseph Artaud
Birth PlaceMarseille, France
Diseases DisabilitiesSchizophrenia
GenderMale
FatherAntoine-Roi Artaud
MotherEuphrasie Nalpas
Sun SignVirgo
Born inMarseille, France
Famous asDramatist, Poet, Essayist, Actor, & Theatre Director
Died at Age51

// Famous Theatre Director

Antonin Artaud's photo

Who is Antonin Artaud?

Antonin Artaud was a playwright for very few plays during his lifetime, but he exercised a considerable amount of influence with his small collection of works. He was a great French playwright and also became known for his theoretical writings. He was briefly involved with the Surrealist movement in the early years of his career, which influenced a number of his works. He decided very early on that a new type of theatre was required, thereby transfiguring his famous, ‘Theater of Cruelty’ idea, which added importance on manuscript and on the primordial expressions of movement, light and sound combined. His plays were usually centered on human behavior and raw human emotions, many of which were jeered at and even dismissed by a number of people. Apart from being as a playwright, he was also an actor, artist, designer and director. He was also a prolific writer and contributed regularly to periodicals like the journal, ‘Litterature’. Some of his significant pieces of work include, ‘Art and Death and ‘The Theatre and its Double’, through which he forwarded the ideas for the creation of a new genre of theatre, that he hoped would change the perceptions of the-then theatrical experiences.

// Famous Dramatist

Childhood & Early Life

Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud was born to Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud in Marseille, France.

At the age of four, he suffered from meningitis, which ultimately gave him an edgy, short-tempered personality throughout his adolescence. He also suffered from stammering problems and clinical depression.

In 1916, he was drafted into the French Army and was allegedly discharged due to sleepwalking. After he was discharged, he was admitted to a sanatorium for a while. During this time, he read the works of Arthur Rimbaud and Edgar Allan Poe.

In 1920, after being discharged from the sanatorium, he moved to Paris, to pursue a career as a writer. It was there that he realized his passion for experimental theatre.

Career

In 1921, he contributed articles to periodicals like ‘Litterature’ and became a leading face of the Surrealist group. He would also edit issues of other top Surrealist magazines during this time.

During his stay in Paris, he trained with directors like Charles Dullin and Georges Pitoeff and wrote both, poetry and essays. In 1927, he also did a small role in ‘Napoleon’ as Jean-Paul Marat.

He developed a great interest for cinema as well and hence, wrote the setting for the first Surrealist film of his career, ‘The Seashell and the Clergyman’, in 1928. The same year, he appeared in his first film, ‘Passion of Joan of Arc’, in which he did a small role

He witnessed a traditional Balinese dance performance for the first time in 1931 at the Paris Colonial Exposition. This one performance went on to influence many of his ideas for theatre.

The same year, the ‘First Manifesto for a Theatre of Cruelty’ was published in ‘La Nouvelle Revue Francaise’. In 1935, his production of Shelley’s, ‘The Cenci’, premiered. The play failed commercially, but it became known because it used the Ondes Martenot, an electronic instrument for the first time.

In 1936, he travelled to Mexico, where he studied and lived with the Tarahumaran people. Two years later, his best-known work, ‘The Theatre and Its Double’ was published. It was one of the two books that contained the two manifestos of ‘The Theatre of Cruelty’.

In the final years of his life, he spent his time in various asylums and a psychiatric hospital in Rodez. In 1946, he was released from the hospital; and was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Ivry-sur-Seine.

In 1947, he recorded ‘Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu’, which was shelved and was to be broadcast on radio. It was broadcasted only thirty years later.

Major Works

‘The Theatre and its Double’ was released in 1938 and is largely considered his magnum opus because it attacked standard dramatic conventions. It was one of the two manuscripts that outlined the ideology of the ‘Theatre of Cruelty’. The collection is still widely used to this day and has strongly influenced the directing attitudes of renowned figures such as Peter Brook. It is also included in ‘Le Monde’s 100 Books of the Century’.

Personal Life & Legacy

In January 1948, he was diagnosed with colorectal cancer and succumbed to it three months later on 4 March 1948 at a psychiatric clinic. It was also suspected that he died from a poisonous dose of the drug, chloral hydrate.

He has been mentioned in popular culture time and again. For instance, the band ‘Motley Cr�e’ named the ‘Theatre of Pain’ after reading his bid for the ‘Theatre of Cruelty’. He also influenced Argentinian hard rock band, who named one of their albums ‘Artaud’ after him.

John Zorn, the composer, composed six different records in Artaud’s honor.

The ‘Living Theatre’ is also heavily influenced by Artaud. There are plays such as ‘Artaud at Rodez’ and the novel, ‘Yo-You Boing!’ that have mentioned his name.

He had a wide influence on philosophers such as Felix Guattari and Gilles Deleuze.

Trivia

The character ‘Lee Toric’ in the television series, ‘Sons of Anarchy’ was seen reading this famous French playwright’s novel, ‘Watchfields & Rack Screams’ in an episode of Season 5.

// Famous Film & Theater Personalities

Antonin Artaud biography timelines

  • // 4th Sep 1896
    Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud was born to Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud in Marseille, France.
  • // 1916
    In 1916, he was drafted into the French Army and was allegedly discharged due to sleepwalking. After he was discharged, he was admitted to a sanatorium for a while. During this time, he read the works of Arthur Rimbaud and Edgar Allan Poe.
  • // 1920
    In 1920, after being discharged from the sanatorium, he moved to Paris, to pursue a career as a writer. It was there that he realized his passion for experimental theatre.
  • // 1921
    In 1921, he contributed articles to periodicals like ‘Litterature’ and became a leading face of the Surrealist group. He would also edit issues of other top Surrealist magazines during this time.
  • // 1927
    During his stay in Paris, he trained with directors like Charles Dullin and Georges Pitoeff and wrote both, poetry and essays. In 1927, he also did a small role in ‘Napoleon’ as Jean-Paul Marat.
  • // 1928
    He developed a great interest for cinema as well and hence, wrote the setting for the first Surrealist film of his career, ‘The Seashell and the Clergyman’, in 1928. The same year, he appeared in his first film, ‘Passion of Joan of Arc’, in which he did a small role
  • // 1931
    He witnessed a traditional Balinese dance performance for the first time in 1931 at the Paris Colonial Exposition. This one performance went on to influence many of his ideas for theatre.
  • // 1935
    The same year, the ‘First Manifesto for a Theatre of Cruelty’ was published in ‘La Nouvelle Revue Francaise’. In 1935, his production of Shelley’s, ‘The Cenci’, premiered. The play failed commercially, but it became known because it used the Ondes Martenot, an electronic instrument for the first time.
  • // 1936
    In 1936, he travelled to Mexico, where he studied and lived with the Tarahumaran people. Two years later, his best-known work, ‘The Theatre and Its Double’ was published. It was one of the two books that contained the two manifestos of ‘The Theatre of Cruelty’.
  • // 1946
    In the final years of his life, he spent his time in various asylums and a psychiatric hospital in Rodez. In 1946, he was released from the hospital; and was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Ivry-sur-Seine.
  • // 1947
    In 1947, he recorded ‘Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu’, which was shelved and was to be broadcast on radio. It was broadcasted only thirty years later.
  • // 4th Mar 1948
    In January 1948, he was diagnosed with colorectal cancer and succumbed to it three months later on 4 March 1948 at a psychiatric clinic. It was also suspected that he died from a poisonous dose of the drug, chloral hydrate.

// Famous Essayists

Antonin Artaud's FAQ

  • What is Antonin Artaud birthday?

    Antonin Artaud was born at 1896-09-04

  • When was Antonin Artaud died?

    Antonin Artaud was died at 1948-03-04

  • Where was Antonin Artaud died?

    Antonin Artaud was died in Paris, France

  • Which age was Antonin Artaud died?

    Antonin Artaud was died at age 51

  • Where is Antonin Artaud's birth place?

    Antonin Artaud was born in Marseille, France

  • What is Antonin Artaud nationalities?

    Antonin Artaud's nationalities is French

  • Who is Antonin Artaud's father?

    Antonin Artaud's father is Antoine-Roi Artaud

  • Who is Antonin Artaud's mother?

    Antonin Artaud's mother is Euphrasie Nalpas

  • What is Antonin Artaud's sun sign?

    Antonin Artaud is Virgo

  • How famous is Antonin Artaud?

    Antonin Artaud is famouse as Dramatist, Poet, Essayist, Actor, & Theatre Director