Maxim Gorky - Writers, Birthday and Family

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Maxim Gorky's Personal Details

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, better known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian author

InformationDetail
BirthdayMarch 28, 1868
Died onJune 18, 1936
NationalityRussian
FamousDramatist, Writers, Writers, Novelists, Playwrights
SpousesMaria Andreyeva, Moura Budberg, Yekaterina Peshkova
Known asAlexei Maximovich Peshkov
Childrens Catherine Zhelyabuzhskiy, Maxim Peshkov, Yekaterina Peshkova, Yuri Zhelyabuzhsky, Zinovy Peshkov
Birth PlaceNizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire
GenderMale
FatherMaksim Peshkov
MotherVarvara Peshkova
Sun SignAries
Born inNizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire
Famous asWriter & Dramatist
Died at Age68

// Famous Dramatist

Maxim Gorky's photo

Who is Maxim Gorky?

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, better known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian author considered the father of Soviet revolutionary literature and founder of the doctrine of socialist realism. After having a difficult childhood, he roamed across the Russian empire, frequently changing jobs for about fifteen years before he became a successful writer. The experiences he had during those fifteen years deeply influenced his writing. Initially, he wrote stories mainly based on the lives of tramps and social outcasts, and he became known for his naturalistic style of writing. One of his greatest works is ‘The Mother,’ which Lenin praised as “a very timely book.” Gorky was deeply associated with fellow Russian writers, Anton Chekhov and Leo Tolstoy and later wrote memoirs on them. Gorky was not only a great writer but also an influential figure in the political thinking. He was active with the emerging Marxist social-democrat movement. Initially a Bolshevik supporter, he became a critic when Vladimir Lenin seized power. However, later Gorky served as a Soviet advocate and headed the Union of Soviet Writers. His life was marked with a number of politically forced and sometimes self-imposed exiles.

// Famous Writers

Childhood & Early Life

Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov was born on March 28, 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia and became an orphan at the age of eleven.

He was raised by his maternal grandmother who helped his development as a storyteller. He ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880.

After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, frequently changing jobs. His jobs included, among many others, work as assistant in a shoemaker’s shop, as errand boy for an icon painter, and as a dishwasher on a Volga steamer, where the cook introduced him to reading—soon to become his main passion in life.

Career

In the 1890s, he began writing. He adopted the pseudonym Maxim Gorky (choosing the name Gorky because it meant "bitter").

His first short story, “Makar Chudra” was published in various journals in 1892, and it became very popular with readers.

Then, in 1895, “Chelkash,” a short story about a thief and a peasant boy was published. In all his writings, Gorky wrote using all the experiences he had gained from living in poverty. He wrote with sympathy about the simple folks, the outcasts, the gypsies, the hobos and dreamers in the context of social decay in the Russian Empire. His perspective won him great acclaim around the country, and he was soon viewed as one of the leading writers.

In 1898, a collection of Gorky’s writings, “Sketches and Stories” was published.

He also produced full-length books and plays beginning with the novel “Foma Gordeyev” in 1899.

He became friends with Anton Chekhov and Leo Tolstoy and later penned their memoirs.

His play “The Lower Depths” was praised by Chekhov and was successfully played in Europe and the United States in 1902.

Gorky was a devoted Marxist and gave much of his writing income to the cause. He followed the Bolshevik wing following a party split in 1903, though he was never an official party member.

Gorky was imprisoned for his actions during the Russian Revolution of 1905.

He went to live in Europe and America during 1906-13. In America he started his classic novel, “The Mother”, about a Russian Christian woman and her imprisoned son, who both joined revolutionaries under the illusion that revolution follows Christ's messages.

Gorky eventually returned to Russia in 1913, and was living there when the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin seized control of the country in 1917. Gorky objected to the undemocratic tactics that were used in this takeover and frequently wrote in his newspaper, “New Life”, about the violence and repression that Russia experienced under Lenin's rule. Gorky was silenced in 1918 when his newspaper was shut down.

For his criticism of the Bolsheviks, Gorky was forced to leave Russia in 1921.

For the next few years, he traveled through Europe before settling in Sorrento, Italy, in 1924. There, he continued to write and completed his autobiographical trilogy and published a new collection of stories.

He returned to Russia in 1928. Joseph Stalin who took control of the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death decided that it would be better to have Gorky return permanently so that he could keep an eye on his activities.

Major Works

Among his many writings, Gorky’s play “The Lower Depths” was praised by Chekhov and was successfully played in Europe and the United States in 1902.

“Twenty-six Men and a Girl”, “The Song of the Stormy Petrel”, “Summerfolk”, and “Children of the Sun” are among the most well-known works of Gorky.

Personal Life & Legacy

Moura Budberg, who was initially hired by Gorky as his secretary in 1921, became his unofficial wife.

On June 18, 1936, Gorky died at his villa in Gorki Leninskiye, outside of Moscow. He was 68. Gorky had been unwell and undergoing medical treatment, but rumors circulated that Stalin had arranged for his death.

// Famous Novelists

Maxim Gorky biography timelines

  • // 28th Mar 1868
    Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov was born on March 28, 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia and became an orphan at the age of eleven.
  • // 1880
    He was raised by his maternal grandmother who helped his development as a storyteller. He ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880.
  • // Dec 1887
    After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, frequently changing jobs. His jobs included, among many others, work as assistant in a shoemaker’s shop, as errand boy for an icon painter, and as a dishwasher on a Volga steamer, where the cook introduced him to reading—soon to become his main passion in life.
  • // 1892
    His first short story, “Makar Chudra” was published in various journals in 1892, and it became very popular with readers.
  • // 1895
    Then, in 1895, “Chelkash,” a short story about a thief and a peasant boy was published. In all his writings, Gorky wrote using all the experiences he had gained from living in poverty. He wrote with sympathy about the simple folks, the outcasts, the gypsies, the hobos and dreamers in the context of social decay in the Russian Empire. His perspective won him great acclaim around the country, and he was soon viewed as one of the leading writers.
  • // 1898
    In 1898, a collection of Gorky’s writings, “Sketches and Stories” was published.
  • // 1899
    He also produced full-length books and plays beginning with the novel “Foma Gordeyev” in 1899.
  • // 1902
    His play “The Lower Depths” was praised by Chekhov and was successfully played in Europe and the United States in 1902.
  • // 1902
    Among his many writings, Gorky’s play “The Lower Depths” was praised by Chekhov and was successfully played in Europe and the United States in 1902.
  • // 1903
    Gorky was a devoted Marxist and gave much of his writing income to the cause. He followed the Bolshevik wing following a party split in 1903, though he was never an official party member.
  • // 1905
    Gorky was imprisoned for his actions during the Russian Revolution of 1905.
  • // 1906 To 1913
    He went to live in Europe and America during 1906-13. In America he started his classic novel, “The Mother”, about a Russian Christian woman and her imprisoned son, who both joined revolutionaries under the illusion that revolution follows Christ's messages.
  • // 1921
    For his criticism of the Bolsheviks, Gorky was forced to leave Russia in 1921.
  • // 1921
    Moura Budberg, who was initially hired by Gorky as his secretary in 1921, became his unofficial wife.
  • // 1924
    For the next few years, he traveled through Europe before settling in Sorrento, Italy, in 1924. There, he continued to write and completed his autobiographical trilogy and published a new collection of stories.
  • // 1928
    He returned to Russia in 1928. Joseph Stalin who took control of the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death decided that it would be better to have Gorky return permanently so that he could keep an eye on his activities.
  • // 18th Jun 1936
    On June 18, 1936, Gorky died at his villa in Gorki Leninskiye, outside of Moscow. He was 68. Gorky had been unwell and undergoing medical treatment, but rumors circulated that Stalin had arranged for his death.

// Famous Writers

Maxim Gorky's FAQ

  • What is Maxim Gorky birthday?

    Maxim Gorky was born at 1868-03-28

  • When was Maxim Gorky died?

    Maxim Gorky was died at 1936-06-18

  • Where was Maxim Gorky died?

    Maxim Gorky was died in Gorki Leninskiye, Moscow Oblast, Soviet Union

  • Which age was Maxim Gorky died?

    Maxim Gorky was died at age 68

  • Where is Maxim Gorky's birth place?

    Maxim Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire

  • What is Maxim Gorky nationalities?

    Maxim Gorky's nationalities is Russian

  • Who is Maxim Gorky spouses?

    Maxim Gorky's spouses is Maria Andreyeva, Moura Budberg, Yekaterina Peshkova

  • Who is Maxim Gorky childrens?

    Maxim Gorky's childrens is Catherine Zhelyabuzhskiy, Maxim Peshkov, Yekaterina Peshkova, Yuri Zhelyabuzhsky, Zinovy Peshkov

  • Who is Maxim Gorky's father?

    Maxim Gorky's father is Maksim Peshkov

  • Who is Maxim Gorky's mother?

    Maxim Gorky's mother is Varvara Peshkova

  • What is Maxim Gorky's sun sign?

    Maxim Gorky is Aries

  • How famous is Maxim Gorky?

    Maxim Gorky is famouse as Writer & Dramatist