Madan Mohan Malaviya - Educationist, Timeline and Childhood

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Madan Mohan Malaviya's Personal Details

Madan Mohan Malaviya was a veteran Indian statesman, educationist and independence activist

InformationDetail
BirthdayDecember 25, 1861
Died onNovember 12, 1946
NationalityIndian
FamousEducationist, Politician, Leaders, Political Leaders, Educators
SpousesKumari Devi
Known asMahamana, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Childrens Govind Malaviya, Ramakant Malaviya
Birth PlaceAllahabad, India
GenderMale
FatherPandit Brij Nath
MotherMoona Devi
Sun SignCapricorn
Born inAllahabad, India
Famous asPolitician & Educationist
Died at Age84

// Famous Politician

Madan Mohan Malaviya's photo

Who is Madan Mohan Malaviya?

‘Bharat Ratna’ Madan Mohan Malaviya was a veteran Indian statesman, educationist and independence activist. Decades long political career of Malaviya saw him serving as President of the ‘Indian National Congress’ four times. He is remembered as founder of the largest residential university of Asia and one of the largest in the world, the ‘Banaras Hindu University’ (BHU). For almost two decades he served as Vice Chancellor of the BHU, the university with departments in sciences, medical, engineering, technology, law, agriculture, arts and performing arts with strength of over 35,000 students. He was a proponent of Hindu nationalism and remained a member of ‘Hindu Mahasabha’, serving as President in two of its special sessions held in Gaya and Kashi. He founded the ‘Ganga Mahasabha’ in Haridwar. Malaviya and other imminent Indian personalities established ‘Scouting in India’ as an overseas branch of the ‘Scout Association’ of the UK. He was the founder of ‘The Leader’ an English-newspaper published from Allahabad that gradually became influential. People used to address him as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya out of respect. He was fondly called Mahamana, a title conferred by Mahatma Gandhi. He popularised the slogan "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone will triumph) from the ‘Mundakopanishad’ expressing that it should be the slogan for the country.

// Famous Educationist

Childhood & Early Life

He was born on December 25, 1861, in Allahabad, India, in a Brahmin family to Pandit Brij Nath and his wife Moona Devi as their fifth child among five sons and two daughters.

His ancestors were Sanskrit scholars originally hailing from Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, hence called the ‘Malaviyas’, while their actual surname was Chaturvedi.

His father, a Sanskrit scholar, was an exceptional Kathavachak, who recited the stories from ‘Srimad Bhagavat’. Young Malaviya also aspired to become a Kathavachak like his father.

His elementary education began in Sanskrit at five years of age. He completed his primary education from ‘Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala’ of Pandit Hardeva and thereafter studied in a school run by ‘Vidha Vardini Sabha’.

Thereafter he studied at 'Allahabad Zila School’, an English medium school. Here he began to write poems with pseudonym ‘Makarand’, which were later published during 1883-84 in ‘Harischandra Chandrika’ magazine. His articles on contemporary and religious subjects were published in ‘Hindi Pradeepa’.

In 1879 he completed his matriculation from ‘Muir Central College’ (presently the ‘Allahabad University’).

As his family was going through a financial crisis, the Principal of ‘Harrison College’ helped him with a monthly scholarship with which he studied at the ‘University of Calcutta’ and earned a B.A. degree.

He wanted to pursue masters in Sanskrit, but the financial condition of his family forced him to take up a job of a teacher at the Government high school in Allahabad in July 1884, drawing a monthly salary of Rs. 40.

Career

While attending the second ‘Indian National Congress’ session in Calcutta in December 1886, he expressed his views on representations in Councils and impressed Dadabhai Naoroji, chairman of the session as also Raja Rampal Singh of Kalakankar estate (Pratapgarh District). Singh was in search of an able editor who could turn his Hindi weekly, ‘Hindustan’ into a daily.

Malaviya accepted the offer of Singh and left his school job to join the paper as its editor in July 1887. He served the position for 2 ½ years following which he returned to Allahabad to study Law.

While studying Law, in 1889 he started working as editor of English daily, ‘Indian Opinion’. His other journalistic endeavors included founding of Hindi weekly, ‘Abhyudaya’ in 1907 and serving as its editor, later transforming it to a daily in 1915; founding the English newspaper ‘Leader’ (1909), serving as its Editor (1909-11) and later as President (1911-19); starting Hindi paper ‘Maryada’ (1910); acquiring and thus saving ‘Hindustan Times’ from dying out in 1924 with the aid of M. R. Jayakar, Lala Lajpat Rai and Ghanshyam Das Birla and serving as its Chairman (1924-46); launching Hindi edition of ‘Hindustan Times’ called ‘Hindustan’ in 1936.

After earning his L.L.B., he began to practice in Allahabad District Court in 1891.

In 1893 he started practicing in Allahabad High Court.

He was elected the president of the 'Indian National Congress’ in In 1909 and 1918. A moderate leader, belonging to the ‘soft faction’ of the Congress led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Malaviya was against one of the main features of the ‘Lucknow Pact’ of 1916 that mentioned separate electorates for Muslims.

To dedicate fully to the cause of social work and education, Malaviya relinquished his well set up law practice in 1911 and vowed to lead a life of a Sanyasi. However in 1924, following the Chauri-chaura incident of 1922 he appeared before the Allahabad High Court to defend the 177 freedom fighters, who were sentenced to be hanged by the Sessions Court, and became successful in getting 156 acquitted.

Annie Besant, a leading British women's rights activist, socialist, theosophist, orator and writer, who founded the ‘Central Hindu College’ (1898), met Malaviya in April 1911. Both of them decided to set up a Hindu University at Varanasi. They came in unison of the pre-requisite of the Indian government to include ‘Central Hindu College’ as part of the upcoming University.

This is how the largest residential University of Asia, the ‘Banaras Hindu University’ was formed in 1916 after passing a Parliamentary legislation, the ‘B.H.U. Act 1915. He remained Vice-Chancellor of the University till 1939.

In 1912 he became a member of the ‘Imperial Legislative Council’ and continued to be so when it was transformed into the ‘Central Legislative Assembly’ in 1919, his membership remained till 1926.

He got associated with Jawaharlal Nehru and Lala Lajpat Rai, and several others in 1928 to oppose the ‘Simon Commission’ and on May 30, 1932, he published a manifesto insisting to concentrate on the ‘Buy Indian’ movement in the country.

In 1931 he attended the ‘Second Round Table Conference’ as a delegate.

He presided the 1932 session of the Congress in Delhi. Malaviya played a major role in the Non-cooperation movement, although opposed Congress' participation in the Khilafat movement. On April 25, 1932, around 450 Congress volunteers along with Malaviya were arrested in Delhi.

The ‘Poona Pact’ agreement was signed between him and Dr. Ambedkar on September 25, 1932. It provided reserve seats for the depressed classes (denoting the untouchables among Hindus) in the general electorate in the Provincial legislatures, instead of forming separate electorate.

He became the President of Congress for the fourth time in Calcutta in 1933.

Disenchanted with the ‘Communal Award’, he split away from the Congress along with Madhav Shrihari Aney and the duo founded ‘Congress Nationalist Party’ in 1934. That year the party won 12 seats in elections to the central legislature.

In 1937 he retired from active political life.

Awards & Achievements

On December 24, 2014, he was posthumously bestowed the highest civilian honour of India, the ‘Bharat Ratna’, a day ahead of his 153rd Birth Anniversary.

Personal Life & Legacy

In 1878 he married Kumari Devi of Mirzapur and had two sons Ramakant Malaviya and Govind Malaviya.

He passed away in Varanasi on November 12, 1946.

Trivia

Many places, institutes, hostel campuses were named after him like the Malviya Nagar in Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow and Allahabad among others; ‘Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology’ in Gorakhpur; and ‘Malaviya National Institute of Technology’ at Jaipur.

The train ‘Mahamana Express’, launched on January 22, 2016, is named after him.

// Famous Political Leaders

Madan Mohan Malaviya awards

YearNameAward

Other

Bharat Ratna (2015)

Madan Mohan Malaviya biography timelines

  • // 25th Dec 1861
    He was born on December 25, 1861, in Allahabad, India, in a Brahmin family to Pandit Brij Nath and his wife Moona Devi as their fifth child among five sons and two daughters.
  • // 1878
    In 1878 he married Kumari Devi of Mirzapur and had two sons Ramakant Malaviya and Govind Malaviya.
  • // 1879
    In 1879 he completed his matriculation from ‘Muir Central College’ (presently the ‘Allahabad University’).
  • // 1883 To 1884
    Thereafter he studied at 'Allahabad Zila School’, an English medium school. Here he began to write poems with pseudonym ‘Makarand’, which were later published during 1883-84 in ‘Harischandra Chandrika’ magazine. His articles on contemporary and religious subjects were published in ‘Hindi Pradeepa’.
  • // Jul 1884
    He wanted to pursue masters in Sanskrit, but the financial condition of his family forced him to take up a job of a teacher at the Government high school in Allahabad in July 1884, drawing a monthly salary of Rs. 40.
  • // Dec 1886
    While attending the second ‘Indian National Congress’ session in Calcutta in December 1886, he expressed his views on representations in Councils and impressed Dadabhai Naoroji, chairman of the session as also Raja Rampal Singh of Kalakankar estate (Pratapgarh District). Singh was in search of an able editor who could turn his Hindi weekly, ‘Hindustan’ into a daily.
  • // Jul 1887
    Malaviya accepted the offer of Singh and left his school job to join the paper as its editor in July 1887. He served the position for 2 ½ years following which he returned to Allahabad to study Law.
  • // 1891
    After earning his L.L.B., he began to practice in Allahabad District Court in 1891.
  • // 1893
    In 1893 he started practicing in Allahabad High Court.
  • // 1898 To Apr 1911
    Annie Besant, a leading British women's rights activist, socialist, theosophist, orator and writer, who founded the ‘Central Hindu College’ (1898), met Malaviya in April 1911. Both of them decided to set up a Hindu University at Varanasi. They came in unison of the pre-requisite of the Indian government to include ‘Central Hindu College’ as part of the upcoming University.
  • // 1909 To 1918
    He was elected the president of the 'Indian National Congress’ in In 1909 and 1918. A moderate leader, belonging to the ‘soft faction’ of the Congress led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Malaviya was against one of the main features of the ‘Lucknow Pact’ of 1916 that mentioned separate electorates for Muslims.
  • // 1912 To 1919
    In 1912 he became a member of the ‘Imperial Legislative Council’ and continued to be so when it was transformed into the ‘Central Legislative Assembly’ in 1919, his membership remained till 1926.
  • // 1916
    This is how the largest residential University of Asia, the ‘Banaras Hindu University’ was formed in 1916 after passing a Parliamentary legislation, the ‘B.H.U. Act 1915. He remained Vice-Chancellor of the University till 1939.
  • // 1928 To 30th May 1932
    He got associated with Jawaharlal Nehru and Lala Lajpat Rai, and several others in 1928 to oppose the ‘Simon Commission’ and on May 30, 1932, he published a manifesto insisting to concentrate on the ‘Buy Indian’ movement in the country.
  • // 1931
    In 1931 he attended the ‘Second Round Table Conference’ as a delegate.
  • // 25th Apr 1932
    He presided the 1932 session of the Congress in Delhi. Malaviya played a major role in the Non-cooperation movement, although opposed Congress' participation in the Khilafat movement. On April 25, 1932, around 450 Congress volunteers along with Malaviya were arrested in Delhi.
  • // 25th Sep 1932
    The ‘Poona Pact’ agreement was signed between him and Dr. Ambedkar on September 25, 1932. It provided reserve seats for the depressed classes (denoting the untouchables among Hindus) in the general electorate in the Provincial legislatures, instead of forming separate electorate.
  • // 1933
    He became the President of Congress for the fourth time in Calcutta in 1933.
  • // 1934
    Disenchanted with the ‘Communal Award’, he split away from the Congress along with Madhav Shrihari Aney and the duo founded ‘Congress Nationalist Party’ in 1934. That year the party won 12 seats in elections to the central legislature.
  • // 1937
    In 1937 he retired from active political life.
  • // 12th Nov 1946
    He passed away in Varanasi on November 12, 1946.
  • // 24th Dec 2014
    On December 24, 2014, he was posthumously bestowed the highest civilian honour of India, the ‘Bharat Ratna’, a day ahead of his 153rd Birth Anniversary.
  • // 22nd Jan 2016
    The train ‘Mahamana Express’, launched on January 22, 2016, is named after him.

// Famous Leaders

Madan Mohan Malaviya's FAQ

  • What is Madan Mohan Malaviya birthday?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya was born at 1861-12-25

  • When was Madan Mohan Malaviya died?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya was died at 1946-11-12

  • Where was Madan Mohan Malaviya died?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya was died in Varanasi, UP, India

  • Which age was Madan Mohan Malaviya died?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya was died at age 84

  • Where is Madan Mohan Malaviya's birth place?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya was born in Allahabad, India

  • What is Madan Mohan Malaviya nationalities?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya's nationalities is Indian

  • Who is Madan Mohan Malaviya spouses?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya's spouses is Kumari Devi

  • Who is Madan Mohan Malaviya childrens?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya's childrens is Govind Malaviya, Ramakant Malaviya

  • Who is Madan Mohan Malaviya's father?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya's father is Pandit Brij Nath

  • Who is Madan Mohan Malaviya's mother?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya's mother is Moona Devi

  • What is Madan Mohan Malaviya's sun sign?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya is Capricorn

  • How famous is Madan Mohan Malaviya?

    Madan Mohan Malaviya is famouse as Politician & Educationist