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Linus Pauling Family, Career, American - 𝐋𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐬 𝐏𝐚𝐮𝐥𝐢𝐧𝐠 Biography
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Ava Helen Pauling
Linus Jr.Peter Edward Crellin)
Oregon State University ( known then as Oregon Agricultural College)Washington High School
Portland
Male
Herman Henry William Pauling (1876–1910)
Lucy Isabelle
Pisces
Portland
93
Big Sur
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Who is Linus Pauling?

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One of the greatest scientists of the 20th century and the most influential chemist in history, Linus Pauling is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes. Popularly referred to as the ‘founding father of molecular chemistry’, Pauling’s findings in the field of biological sciences and medicine have provided the foundation for modern biotechnology. As a man of diverse accomplishments, he passionately spoke out against the development of nuclear weapons and the dangers associated with it, while he continued to pursue an amazing array of scientific interests. He was a great orator and gave numerous public speeches on the need for abandoning nuclear testing and was often invited as a speaker at conferences, political rallies, commencements, and media programs. This multi-faceted genius had a zest for communication and the ability to explain complex medical and scientific information in simple terms that a lay man could comprehend. He authored numerous articles and books on various topics like peace activism, health and science. Some of his well-known books include ‘Vitamin C and the Common Cold’, ‘Cancer and Vitamin C’ and ‘How to Live Longer and Feel Better’. To learn more interesting facts about his personal life, peace advocacy campaigns and other scientific achievements, scroll down and continue to read this biography.

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Linus Pauling Childhood & Early Life

Linus Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon to Herman Henry William Pauling, a bread salesman and Lucy Isabelle ‘Belle’ Darling. The family lived together in a humble one room apartment.

After his sister Pauline was born, the family moved to Salem, Oregon as his father took up a salesman job at the Skidmore Drug Company.

During his younger days he was a voracious reader and was also fascinated by chemistry experiments, he even set up a laboratory with the help of an older friend.

Before he attended Oregon State University in 1917, he took a number of odd jobs—worked part time at a grocery store, as an apprentice machinist and also set up a photography laboratory with his friends—in order to earn enough money to fund his college expenses.

In 1922, he graduated from the Oregon State University with a degree in chemical engineering, after which he attended the California Institute of Technology.

While he was pursuing his graduate studies, he published seven papers on the crystal structure of minerals and in 1925 he received a Ph.D. in ‘physical chemistry and mathematical physics, summa cum laude’

Linus Pauling Career

In 1927, he became the assistant professor of ‘theoretical chemistry’ at the California Institute of Technology and during his five year stay at the institute he published fifty papers and invented the ‘Pauling’s rules’.

In 1930, he travelled to Europe to study the use of ‘electrons’ in ‘diffraction’ and after he returned, he built an instrument called the ‘electron diffraction instrument’ to study the ‘molecular structure’ of chemical substances.

In 1932, he published a paper on the concept of ‘hybridization of atomic orbitals’ and analysed the ‘tetravalency’ of the ‘carbon atom’.

He introduced the concept of ‘electronegativity’ and established the ‘Pauling Electronegativity Scale’, a tool to predict ‘bond between atoms and molecules’.

During the World War II, he did not work on any military projects and refused to work in the ‘Manhattan Project’, a research and development project that produced the first atomic bomb.

In 1946, he became a member of the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, an organisation that warned the public of the hazards associated with the development of nuclear weapons.

In 1949, along with fellow scientists he authored a paper titled ‘Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease’, which was published in the journal ‘Science’.

In 1955, along with fellow colleagues from the scientific community like Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell he signed the ‘Russell-Einstein Manifesto’, an appeal to seek peaceful resolutions and put an end to nuclear weapons.

In 1958, he participated in the ‘Baby Tooth Survey’, that demonstrated the dangers of above-ground nuclear testing. The same year, along with his wife he presented the United Nations a petition signed by 11,000 scientists to end nuclear weapon testing.

During the 1960s, he opposed America’s involvement in the Vietnam War, for this cause he made many public speeches and signed protest letters and petitions.

In 1965, he authored a research paper titled, ‘Close-Packed Spheron Model of the atomic nucleus’, which was published in some of the well-respected journals including ‘Science’.

In 1970, his book titled ‘Vitamin C and the Common Cold’ was published. The book was about the benefits of the intake of Vitamin C.

He continued to work as a peace activist and in 1974, co-founded the ‘International League of Humanists’, an organisation with the primary objective of promoting peace and human rights.

In 1986, he authored another edition on the health benefits of vitamin C titled, ‘How to live longer and Feel Better’. The book advocated the intake of high dosages of Vitamin C’.

Linus Pauling Major Works

Published in 1939, his book ‘The Nature of the Chemical Bond’ is one of the most influential books ever published in the field of chemistry and it has been cited as a reference in many important journals and scientific papers.

He founded the concept of ‘molecular disease’; these discoveries inspired research work on many more such disorders and is the basis of today’s ‘human genome research’.

Linus Pauling Awards & Achievements

In 1926, he was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and Austrian physicist Erwin Schr�dinger in Z�rich.

In 1931, he was awarded the Langmuir Prize by the American Chemical Society for the most significant work in ‘pure science’ by a person 30 years of age or younger.

In 1954, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.".

In 1962, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his ‘peace activism’.

In 1970, he was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize.

Linus Pauling Personal Life & Legacy

On June 17, 1923 he married Ava Helen Miller and the marriage lasted until her death in 1981. The couple had three sons together.

Even though he was raised as a member of the Lutheran Church, he later became a member of the Unitarian Church and declared that he was an atheist, two years before his death.

At the age of forty, he was diagnosed with Bright's disease, a kidney disease.

At the age of 93, he died of prostate cancer at his home in Big Sur, California.

On March 6, 2008, a 41 cent stamp was released in his honour by the United States Postal Service.

Linus Pauling Trivia

He is the only person to win two undivided Nobel Prizes.

This Nobel Peace Prize winning scientist saved $200 dollars from all the odd jobs he did in order to fund his education, but spent most of his hard earned savings on a girl named Irene, who he fell in love with at University.

This scientist and Nobel Prize winner was denied a passport to London by the American government because he spoke publicly on the dangers associated with the nuclear weapons.

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Linus Pauling awards

  • Other

    • New York Section
    • American Chemical Society
    • 1946
      Willard Gibbs Award
    • Chicago section of the American Chemical Society
    • 1947
      Davy Medal
    • Royal Society
    • 1947
      T. W. Richards Medal
    • Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society
    • 1948
      Presidential Medal for Merit
    • 1951
      Gilbert N. Lewis medal
    • California section of the American Chemical Society
    • 1952
      Pasteur Medal
    • Biochemical Society of France
    • 1954
      Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • 1955
      Addis Medal
    • National Nephrosis Foundation
    • 1955
      John Phillips Memorial Award
    • American College of Physicians
    • 1956
      Avogadro Medal
    • Italian Academy of Science 1957 - Paul Sabatier Medal
    • 1957
      Pierre Fermat Medal in Mathematics (awarded for only the sixth time in three centuries)
    • 1957
      International Grotius Medal
    • 1961
      Humanist of the Year
    • American Humanist Association
    • 1961
      Gandhi Peace Award by Promoting Enduring Peace
    • 1962
      Nobel Peace Prize
    • 1965
      Medal
    • Academy of the Rumanian People's Republic
    • 1966
      Linus Pauling Award
    • 1966
      Silver Medal
    • Institute of France
    • 1966
      Supreme Peace Sponsor
    • World Fellowship of Religion
    • 1967
      Washington A. Roebling Medal
    • Mineralogical Society of America
    • 1972
      Lenin Peace Prize
    • 1974
      National Medal of Science by President Gerald R. Ford of the United States
    • 1978
      Lomonosov Gold Medal
    • Presidium of the Academy of the USSR
    • 1979
      NAS Award in Chemical Sciences
    • National Academy of Sciences
    • 1981
      John K. Lattimer Award
    • American Urological Association
    • 1984 Priestley Medal
    • American Chemical Society
    • 1984
      Award for Chemistry
    • Arthur M. Sackler Foundation
    • 1986
      Lavoisier Medal by Fondation de la Maison de la Chimie
    • 1987
      Award in Chemical Education
    • American Chemical Society
    • 1989
      Vannevar Bush Award
    • National Science Board
    • 1990
      Richard C. Tolman Medal
    • American Chemical Society Southern California Section
    • 1931 - Irving Langmuir Award
    • American Chemical Society
    • 1941 - Nichols Medal
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Linus Pauling biography timelines

  • Linus Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon to Herman Henry William Pauling, a bread salesman and Lucy Isabelle ‘Belle’ Darling. The family lived together in a humble one room apartment.
    28th Feb 1901
  • Before he attended Oregon State University in 1917, he took a number of odd jobs—worked part time at a grocery store, as an apprentice machinist and also set up a photography laboratory with his friends—in order to earn enough money to fund his college expenses.
    1917
  • In 1922, he graduated from the Oregon State University with a degree in chemical engineering, after which he attended the California Institute of Technology.
    1922
  • On June 17, 1923 he married Ava Helen Miller and the marriage lasted until her death in 1981. The couple had three sons together.
    1923 To 1981
  • While he was pursuing his graduate studies, he published seven papers on the crystal structure of minerals and in 1925 he received a Ph.D. in ‘physical chemistry and mathematical physics, summa cum laude’
    1925
  • In 1926, he was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and Austrian physicist Erwin Schr�dinger in Z�rich.
    1926
  • In 1927, he became the assistant professor of ‘theoretical chemistry’ at the California Institute of Technology and during his five year stay at the institute he published fifty papers and invented the ‘Pauling’s rules’.
    1927
  • In 1930, he travelled to Europe to study the use of ‘electrons’ in ‘diffraction’ and after he returned, he built an instrument called the ‘electron diffraction instrument’ to study the ‘molecular structure’ of chemical substances.
    1930
  • In 1931, he was awarded the Langmuir Prize by the American Chemical Society for the most significant work in ‘pure science’ by a person 30 years of age or younger.
    1931
  • In 1932, he published a paper on the concept of ‘hybridization of atomic orbitals’ and analysed the ‘tetravalency’ of the ‘carbon atom’.
    1932
  • Published in 1939, his book ‘The Nature of the Chemical Bond’ is one of the most influential books ever published in the field of chemistry and it has been cited as a reference in many important journals and scientific papers.
    1939
  • In 1946, he became a member of the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, an organisation that warned the public of the hazards associated with the development of nuclear weapons.
    1946
  • In 1949, along with fellow scientists he authored a paper titled ‘Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease’, which was published in the journal ‘Science’.
    1949
  • In 1954, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.".
    1954
  • In 1955, along with fellow colleagues from the scientific community like Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell he signed the ‘Russell-Einstein Manifesto’, an appeal to seek peaceful resolutions and put an end to nuclear weapons.
    1955
  • In 1958, he participated in the ‘Baby Tooth Survey’, that demonstrated the dangers of above-ground nuclear testing. The same year, along with his wife he presented the United Nations a petition signed by 11,000 scientists to end nuclear weapon testing.
    1958
  • In 1962, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his ‘peace activism’.
    1962
  • In 1965, he authored a research paper titled, ‘Close-Packed Spheron Model of the atomic nucleus’, which was published in some of the well-respected journals including ‘Science’.
    1965
  • In 1970, his book titled ‘Vitamin C and the Common Cold’ was published. The book was about the benefits of the intake of Vitamin C.
    1970
  • In 1970, he was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize.
    1970
  • He continued to work as a peace activist and in 1974, co-founded the ‘International League of Humanists’, an organisation with the primary objective of promoting peace and human rights.
    1974
  • In 1986, he authored another edition on the health benefits of vitamin C titled, ‘How to live longer and Feel Better’. The book advocated the intake of high dosages of Vitamin C’.
    1986
  • At the age of 93, he died of prostate cancer at his home in Big Sur, California.
    19th Aug 1994
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Frequently asked questions about Linus Pauling

  • What is Linus Pauling birthday?

    Linus Pauling was born at February 28, 1901

  • Where is Linus Pauling's birth place?

    Linus Pauling was born in Portland

  • What is Linus Pauling nationalities?

    Linus Pauling's nationalities is American

  • Who is Linus Pauling spouses?

    Linus Pauling's spouses is Ava Helen Pauling

  • Who is Linus Pauling childrens?

    Linus Pauling's childrens is Linus Jr., Peter Edward Crellin)

  • What was Linus Pauling universities?

    Linus Pauling studied at Oregon State University ( known then as Oregon Agricultural College), Washington High School university

  • Who is Linus Pauling's father?

    Linus Pauling's father is Herman Henry William Pauling (1876–1910)

  • Who is Linus Pauling's mother?

    Linus Pauling's mother is Lucy Isabelle

  • What is Linus Pauling's sun sign?

    Linus Pauling is Pisces

  • When was Linus Pauling died?

    Linus Pauling was died at August 19, 1994

  • Where was Linus Pauling died?

    Linus Pauling was died in Big Sur

  • Which age was Linus Pauling died?

    Linus Pauling was died at age 93