Leó Szilárd - Scientists, Family and Childhood

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Leó Szilárd's Personal Details

Leo Szilard was a renowned nuclear physicist who is credited for design of a nuclear reactor

InformationDetail
BirthdayFebruary 11, 1898
Died onMay 30, 1964
NationalityAmerican
FamousScientists, Physicists
SpousesGertrud Weiss Szilard
Known asLeo Szilard
Universities
  • Technical University of Berlin
  • Humboldt University of Berlin
  • Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Founder / Co-Founder
  • Council for a Livable World
Discoveries / Inventions
  • Einstein Refrigerator
Birth PlaceBudapest
ReligionAtheism
GenderMale
FatherLouis Spitz
MotherThekla Vidor
Sun SignAquarius
Born inBudapest
Famous asPhysicist
Died at Age66

// Famous Physicists

Leó Szilárd's photo

Who is Leó Szilárd?

Leo Szilard was a renowned inventor who was involved with the Manhattan Project responsible for development of the first ever nuclear reactor. Szilard was born to a Jewish Civil engineer and took after his father when he enrolled at the Palatine Joseph Technical University. But with the ensuing war, he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian military. Ill-health however prevented him from being deported to the battle front. He then resumed his studies at the technical university but his Jewish roots proved to be a hindrance in his path and he moved to the University of Berlin where he studied physics under the expert guidance of greats such as Albert Einstein and Max Planck. In the course of time he spent in Berlin, Leo was involved in several inventions which included the cyclotron and electron microscope. Since he never documented any of these inventions, others were credited for building them. As the rising Nazi-oppression made it difficult for scientists to pursue research of their free will, he fled to London, where he began working at the St Bartholomew's Hospital. It was here that he discovered a technique to separate isotopes from the compounds, which was named as the Szilard–Chalmers effect, after its discoverers. Later he was involved with the Manhattan project which designed the nuclear reactor. Read on to know more about his life and works.

// Famous Scientists

Childhood & Early Life

Leo Szilard was born on February 11, 1898 in a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary to Louis Spitz, an engineer and his wife Thekle Vidor. He was born with the name Leo Spitz but his surname was changed to Szilard, meaning solid when he was 2 years old. He was the eldest among the three children in his family.

Szilard studied at the ‘Realiskola School’ in Budapest and graduated at the age of 18 in 1916. At the same time he was awarded the ‘Eötvös Prize’ which was conferred upon students with exceptional knowledge in mathematics, in Hungary.

In the year 1916, he took admission in engineering at the ‘Palatine Joseph Technical University’ but only a year later he was called for army duty and became an officer. It was not till three years from first taking admission that he was able to resume his education.

In 1919, the ‘Palatine Joseph Technical University’, renamed ‘Budapest University of Technology’ did not want to have Leo as one of their students since he was Jewish and finding the situation untenable he made his way to Germany later that year.

Szilard joined the ‘Institute of Technology in Berlin-Charlottenburg’ in 1919 but he became disenchanted by engineering after a while and enrolled in the physics course at the ‘Friedrich Wilhelm University’.

He was taught physics by some of the most gifted minds in physics including Albert Einstein and in 1922 he was awarded a doctorate in physics.

Career

After serving as an assistant at the ‘Institute of Theoretical Physics’ Szilard was appointed as a private lecturer at the same institute in 1927. During that time he produced a paper which laid the foundations for the study of information theory.

Although Leo Szilard had acquired German citizenship; he realised that he could not stay in the country for long due to the rise of Nazism and in the year 1933 he went to Vienna. A year later he joined the ‘St. Bartholomew’s Hospital’ in London as a member of the physics department.

Szilard was intrigued by Lord Rutherford’s claim that atomic energy wasn’t viable for the real world and wanted to prove his assertion wrong. He worked on separating isotopes in collaboration with T. A. Chambers and successfully demonstrated the ‘Szilard-Chambers effect’.

In the year 1937, he moved to the United States to teach at ‘Columbia University’ and after discussions with Eugene Wagner as well as Albert Einstein wrote a letter five years later to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt regarding the atomic bomb.

It was in the year 1942 that Szilard started with his experiments at the ‘University of Chicago’ in relation to the nuclear reactor in collaboration with Enrico Fermi and till the conclusion of the Second World War he continued to conduct research there. It became known as the famous ‘Manhattan Project’.

In the year 1946, this accomplished physicist was appointed as a professor at the ‘University of Chicago’ where he taught biophysics. He collaborated with chemist Aaron Novick and discovered devices like the chemostat as well as the phenomenon called feedback initiation.

Leo Szilard also held an avid interest in literature and in the year 1959 he published a book titled ‘The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories’, which contained stories of satire on how science can be a deadly thing if it falls into the wrong hands.

Major Works

The erudite scientist made numerous contributions to the field of science but nonetheless his most important benefaction to the field of physics remained his design of nuclear reactor based on the principle of nuclear chain reaction. He was among the group of scientists who led the ‘Manhattan Project’ for manufacture of nuclear devices during the World War II.

Awards & Achievements

He was conferred with the ‘Atoms for Peace Award’ in the year 1959 due to his repeated pleas for using atomic energy responsibly and to regulate the manufacturing of nuclear weapons.

In 1960, he was given the ‘Albert Einstein Award’ in recognition of his path breaking work in theoretical physics.

Personal Life & Legacy

Although many thought that Szilard would remain a bachelor all his life; he married Gertrud Weiss in the year 1951, at the age of 53. They had no children.

During his final years he was suffering from bladder cancer and was undergoing cobalt therapy. On May 30, 1964, the erudite scientist died of a heart attack while he was sleeping.

// Famous American

Leó Szilárd awards

YearNameAward

Other

Albert Einstein Award

Leó Szilárd biography timelines

  • // 11th Feb 1898
    Leo Szilard was born on February 11, 1898 in a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary to Louis Spitz, an engineer and his wife Thekle Vidor. He was born with the name Leo Spitz but his surname was changed to Szilard, meaning solid when he was 2 years old. He was the eldest among the three children in his family.
  • // 1916
    Szilard studied at the ‘Realiskola School’ in Budapest and graduated at the age of 18 in 1916. At the same time he was awarded the ‘Eötvös Prize’ which was conferred upon students with exceptional knowledge in mathematics, in Hungary.
  • // 1916
    In the year 1916, he took admission in engineering at the ‘Palatine Joseph Technical University’ but only a year later he was called for army duty and became an officer. It was not till three years from first taking admission that he was able to resume his education.
  • // 1919
    In 1919, the ‘Palatine Joseph Technical University’, renamed ‘Budapest University of Technology’ did not want to have Leo as one of their students since he was Jewish and finding the situation untenable he made his way to Germany later that year.
  • // 1919
    Szilard joined the ‘Institute of Technology in Berlin-Charlottenburg’ in 1919 but he became disenchanted by engineering after a while and enrolled in the physics course at the ‘Friedrich Wilhelm University’.
  • // 1922
    He was taught physics by some of the most gifted minds in physics including Albert Einstein and in 1922 he was awarded a doctorate in physics.
  • // 1927
    After serving as an assistant at the ‘Institute of Theoretical Physics’ Szilard was appointed as a private lecturer at the same institute in 1927. During that time he produced a paper which laid the foundations for the study of information theory.
  • // 1933
    Although Leo Szilard had acquired German citizenship; he realised that he could not stay in the country for long due to the rise of Nazism and in the year 1933 he went to Vienna. A year later he joined the ‘St. Bartholomew’s Hospital’ in London as a member of the physics department.
  • // 1937
    In the year 1937, he moved to the United States to teach at ‘Columbia University’ and after discussions with Eugene Wagner as well as Albert Einstein wrote a letter five years later to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt regarding the atomic bomb.
  • // 1942
    It was in the year 1942 that Szilard started with his experiments at the ‘University of Chicago’ in relation to the nuclear reactor in collaboration with Enrico Fermi and till the conclusion of the Second World War he continued to conduct research there. It became known as the famous ‘Manhattan Project’.
  • // 1946
    In the year 1946, this accomplished physicist was appointed as a professor at the ‘University of Chicago’ where he taught biophysics. He collaborated with chemist Aaron Novick and discovered devices like the chemostat as well as the phenomenon called feedback initiation.
  • // 1951
    Although many thought that Szilard would remain a bachelor all his life; he married Gertrud Weiss in the year 1951, at the age of 53. They had no children.
  • // 1959
    Leo Szilard also held an avid interest in literature and in the year 1959 he published a book titled ‘The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories’, which contained stories of satire on how science can be a deadly thing if it falls into the wrong hands.
  • // 1959
    He was conferred with the ‘Atoms for Peace Award’ in the year 1959 due to his repeated pleas for using atomic energy responsibly and to regulate the manufacturing of nuclear weapons.
  • // 1960
    In 1960, he was given the ‘Albert Einstein Award’ in recognition of his path breaking work in theoretical physics.
  • // 30th May 1964
    During his final years he was suffering from bladder cancer and was undergoing cobalt therapy. On May 30, 1964, the erudite scientist died of a heart attack while he was sleeping.

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Leó Szilárd's FAQ

  • What is Leó Szilárd birthday?

    Leó Szilárd was born at 1898-02-11

  • When was Leó Szilárd died?

    Leó Szilárd was died at 1964-05-30

  • Where was Leó Szilárd died?

    Leó Szilárd was died in La Jolla

  • Which age was Leó Szilárd died?

    Leó Szilárd was died at age 66

  • Where is Leó Szilárd's birth place?

    Leó Szilárd was born in Budapest

  • What is Leó Szilárd nationalities?

    Leó Szilárd's nationalities is American

  • Who is Leó Szilárd spouses?

    Leó Szilárd's spouses is Gertrud Weiss Szilard

  • What was Leó Szilárd universities?

    Leó Szilárd studied at Technical University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

  • Which company or organization was founded by Leó Szilárd?

    Leó Szilárd was the founder/co-founder of Council for a Livable World

  • What is Leó Szilárd's inventions/discoveries?

    Einstein Refrigerator was invented (or discovered) by Leó Szilárd

  • What is Leó Szilárd's religion?

    Leó Szilárd's religion is Atheism

  • Who is Leó Szilárd's father?

    Leó Szilárd's father is Louis Spitz

  • Who is Leó Szilárd's mother?

    Leó Szilárd's mother is Thekla Vidor

  • What is Leó Szilárd's sun sign?

    Leó Szilárd is Aquarius

  • How famous is Leó Szilárd?

    Leó Szilárd is famouse as Physicist