Karl Landsteiner - Immunologists, Birthday and Family

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Karl Landsteiner's Personal Details

Karl Landsteiner was a Nobel Prize winning scientist from Austria who developed the classification of blood group

InformationDetail
BirthdayJune 14, 1868
Died onJune 26, 1943
NationalityAmerican
FamousPhysicians, Scientists, Biologists, Immunologists, Medical Scientists
Universities
  • University of Vienna
Birth PlaceVienna
ReligionJudaism
GenderMale
Sun SignGemini
Born inVienna
Famous asPhysician
Died at Age75

// Famous Scientists

Karl Landsteiner's photo

Who is Karl Landsteiner?

Karl Landsteiner was an Austrian biologist and physician, who is particularly notable for his work in the field of hematology, which revolutionized the process of blood transfusion. His research in the field of immunology is just as significant as his hematology research, as it led to the isolation of previously deadly viruses and the subsequent development of vaccines against them. Due to his groundbreaking work and singular personality, which has been described as being sad and intense, he acquired many nicknames, including the father of immunology, the father of hematology, and the melancholy genius. Despite the financial hardship Dr. Landsteiner faced during the early years of his career in his native Vienna, he never gave up his beloved research, contributing many important scientific findings during these lean times. Dr. Landsteiner was mentored by some of the leading scientific minds of his time, which no doubt helped him to expand his already prodigious intellect and delve further into his research. He was a man of a solitary nature who preferred to live away from other people, and as such never gave any interviews about his revolutionary work and its impact. Possessing high intelligence and a tireless work ethic, Karl Landsteiner was a scientific pioneer who changed the face of medical treatment forever. Hundreds owe their lives to his research; read on to know more about his contribution to the scientific community

// Famous Medical Scientists

Childhood & Early Life

Karl Landsteiner was born on June 14, 1868, in Vienna, Austria, as the only child of the famed journalist, lawyer and newspaper publisher, Leopold Landsteiner, and his wife, Fanny Hess.

At the age of six, Karl’s father passed away, leading him to develop a very close relationship with his mother, which lasted throughout his life.

He proved himself to be a brilliant student in his youth and was permitted to begin studies at the ‘University of Austria’ in 1885, when he was just seventeen years old.

He graduated from the ‘University of Austria’ with a degree in medicine in 1891, although he chose to become a research scientist instead of a medical practitioner, feeling the future of medicine was in research.

Although he was born Jewish, he converted to Catholicism in 1890, because during time in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire only Catholics could become professors.

Career

In 1891, Karl Landsteiner published his first scientific work, a paper about the influence of diet on the composition of blood ash.

From 1891-1893, Landsteiner immersed himself in the study of chemistry, studying under Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch, Hermann Emil Fisher, and Eugen Bamberger in their labs in Zurich, Wurzburg and Munchen, respectively.

In 1896 he became an assistant to well-known bacteriologist Max von Gruber at the ‘Hygienic Institute of Vienna’, where he concentrated his studies on the natures of immunity and antibodies.

From November 1897 to 1908, he was an assistant under Anton Weischelbaum at the pathological-anatomical institute of the ‘University of Vienna’.

In 1901, Karl made his groundbreaking discovery that, contrary to the previously held belief that all humans’ blood was the same, there are actually four different blood groups and three different blood types.

In 1911, he became an associate professor of pathological anatomy at the ‘WIlhelminenspital’ in Vienna. During this time, he and his partner Erwin Popper also discovered and isolated the polio virus, making the development of a vaccine possible.

In 1922, he accepted a position at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in America, which remained his place of employment for the remainder of his life.

In 1927, he revised the blood group work he had done over 25 years before by discovering 20 new blood groups, which led to the development of modern paternity tests.

During the period of 1930-1932, Landsteiner and his research partner, Clara Nigg, successfully cultured the causative agent of typhus.

Major Works

He published his groundbreaking paper detailing the different human blood groups in 1901, which was entitled ‘On agglutination phenomena of normal human blood’.

In 1936, he published his seminal work about the immune system entitled ‘The Specificity of the Serologic Reactions’, a book which is still considered a classic in its field.

Awards & Achievements

In 1927, Karl Landsteiner received an honorary degree from the ‘University of Chicago’, and two years later was named president of the ‘American Association of Immunologists’.

He won the ‘Nobel Prize’ in 1930 in the category of ‘Physiology and Medicine’ for his work in detecting different human blood groups.

He received honorary degrees from both ‘Cambridge’ and the ‘Free University of Brussels’ in 1934, as well as an honorary degree from ‘Harvard’ two years later.

Personal Life & Legacy

In 1916, Karl Landsteiner married Leopoldine Helene Wlasto, who converted from her Greek Orthodox faith to her husband’s adopted religion of Roman Catholicism. Their only child, a son named Ernst Karl, was born the following year.

With his family, he relocated to New York City to take a job at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in 1923; he was granted American citizenship five years later.

On June 24, 1943, Landsteiner had a heart attack in his laboratory at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in New York where he continued research even after his retirement. He passed away in the hospital two days later.

Trivia

Karl Landsteiner died with his pipette in hand. A death mask of Dr. Landsteiner’s beloved mother, Fanny Hess, hung on his wall until he died.

Dr. Landsteiner was an excellent pianist and he was also known to bring his beloved dog, Waldi, to his lab with him and let him sit underneath his desk.

// Famous Biologists

Karl Landsteiner awards

YearNameAward

Other

1930 - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1946 - Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award

Karl Landsteiner biography timelines

  • // 14th Jun 1868
    Karl Landsteiner was born on June 14, 1868, in Vienna, Austria, as the only child of the famed journalist, lawyer and newspaper publisher, Leopold Landsteiner, and his wife, Fanny Hess.
  • // 1885
    He proved himself to be a brilliant student in his youth and was permitted to begin studies at the ‘University of Austria’ in 1885, when he was just seventeen years old.
  • // 1890
    Although he was born Jewish, he converted to Catholicism in 1890, because during time in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire only Catholics could become professors.
  • // 1891
    He graduated from the ‘University of Austria’ with a degree in medicine in 1891, although he chose to become a research scientist instead of a medical practitioner, feeling the future of medicine was in research.
  • // 1891
    In 1891, Karl Landsteiner published his first scientific work, a paper about the influence of diet on the composition of blood ash.
  • // 1891 To 1893
    From 1891-1893, Landsteiner immersed himself in the study of chemistry, studying under Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch, Hermann Emil Fisher, and Eugen Bamberger in their labs in Zurich, Wurzburg and Munchen, respectively.
  • // 1896
    In 1896 he became an assistant to well-known bacteriologist Max von Gruber at the ‘Hygienic Institute of Vienna’, where he concentrated his studies on the natures of immunity and antibodies.
  • // Nov 1897 To 1908
    From November 1897 to 1908, he was an assistant under Anton Weischelbaum at the pathological-anatomical institute of the ‘University of Vienna’.
  • // 1901
    In 1901, Karl made his groundbreaking discovery that, contrary to the previously held belief that all humans’ blood was the same, there are actually four different blood groups and three different blood types.
  • // 1901
    He published his groundbreaking paper detailing the different human blood groups in 1901, which was entitled ‘On agglutination phenomena of normal human blood’.
  • // 1911
    In 1911, he became an associate professor of pathological anatomy at the ‘WIlhelminenspital’ in Vienna. During this time, he and his partner Erwin Popper also discovered and isolated the polio virus, making the development of a vaccine possible.
  • // 1916
    In 1916, Karl Landsteiner married Leopoldine Helene Wlasto, who converted from her Greek Orthodox faith to her husband’s adopted religion of Roman Catholicism. Their only child, a son named Ernst Karl, was born the following year.
  • // 1922
    In 1922, he accepted a position at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in America, which remained his place of employment for the remainder of his life.
  • // 1923
    With his family, he relocated to New York City to take a job at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in 1923; he was granted American citizenship five years later.
  • // 1927
    In 1927, he revised the blood group work he had done over 25 years before by discovering 20 new blood groups, which led to the development of modern paternity tests.
  • // 1927
    In 1927, Karl Landsteiner received an honorary degree from the ‘University of Chicago’, and two years later was named president of the ‘American Association of Immunologists’.
  • // 1930 To 1932
    During the period of 1930-1932, Landsteiner and his research partner, Clara Nigg, successfully cultured the causative agent of typhus.
  • // 1930
    He won the ‘Nobel Prize’ in 1930 in the category of ‘Physiology and Medicine’ for his work in detecting different human blood groups.
  • // 1934
    He received honorary degrees from both ‘Cambridge’ and the ‘Free University of Brussels’ in 1934, as well as an honorary degree from ‘Harvard’ two years later.
  • // 1936
    In 1936, he published his seminal work about the immune system entitled ‘The Specificity of the Serologic Reactions’, a book which is still considered a classic in its field.
  • // 24th Jun 1943
    On June 24, 1943, Landsteiner had a heart attack in his laboratory at the ‘Rockefeller Institute’ in New York where he continued research even after his retirement. He passed away in the hospital two days later.

// Famous Physicians

Karl Landsteiner's FAQ

  • What is Karl Landsteiner birthday?

    Karl Landsteiner was born at 1868-06-14

  • When was Karl Landsteiner died?

    Karl Landsteiner was died at 1943-06-26

  • Where was Karl Landsteiner died?

    Karl Landsteiner was died in New York City

  • Which age was Karl Landsteiner died?

    Karl Landsteiner was died at age 75

  • Where is Karl Landsteiner's birth place?

    Karl Landsteiner was born in Vienna

  • What is Karl Landsteiner nationalities?

    Karl Landsteiner's nationalities is American

  • What was Karl Landsteiner universities?

    Karl Landsteiner studied at University of Vienna

  • What is Karl Landsteiner's religion?

    Karl Landsteiner's religion is Judaism

  • What is Karl Landsteiner's sun sign?

    Karl Landsteiner is Gemini

  • How famous is Karl Landsteiner?

    Karl Landsteiner is famouse as Physician