Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana - Cambridge University, Family and Family

Violet FieldHome › AmericanHar Gobind KhoranaJanuary 9, 1922137 views

0 based on 0 rates
Har Gobind Khorana Biography Stories 

Har Gobind Khorana's Personal Details

Har Gobind Khorana was an Indian-American biochemist renowned for his research on role of nucleotides in protein synthesis for which he won the Nobel Prize

InformationDetail
BirthdayJanuary 9, 1922
Died onNovember 9, 2011
NationalityAmerican
FamousCambridge University, Scientists, Biochemists
SpousesEsther Elizabeth Sibler
ChildrensDave Roy, Emily Anne, Julia Elizabeth
Universities
  • Cambridge University
Notable Alumnis
  • Cambridge University
Discoveries / Inventions
  • Demonstrated How Genetic Information Is Translated Into Proteins
Birth PlacePunjab, India
ReligionHindu
GenderMale
Sun SignCapricorn
Born inPunjab, India
Died at Age89

// Famous Biochemists

Gerty Cori

Gerty Cori

Gerty Theresa Cori was a Nobel Prize winning biochemist who discovered the catalytic conversion of glycogen. To know more about her childhood, career, profile and timeline read on

Severo Ochoa

Severo Ochoa

Severo Ochoa was a Spanish physician and biochemist who won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Check out this biography to know about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Charles Best

Charles Best

Charles Best was a great scientist and a renowned physiologist who is remembered for being the co-discoverer of insulin. Read this biography to learn about his profile, childhood, life and timeline.

Har Gobind Khorana's photo

Who is Har Gobind Khorana?

The man who formed a part of the team which successfully deciphered the genetic code—the mother of all codes—Har Gobind Khorana was an American biochemist of Indian origins. From the boy who started his primary education studying from a village teacher under a tree to a world renowned biochemist, his life was one long eventful journey. Even though born to poor parents, his family was very keen that their boy gets a good education. He was always a good student and it was no surprise when he won a scholarship to study chemistry at the Punjab University. He shone brilliantly in his studies and was soon off to the University of Liverpool to pursue higher education, again on a scholarship from the Government of India. His interest lay in human genetics and he began experimenting on nucleic acids found in RNA. For his discoveries in the field of DNA which carry the genetic code of all living beings, he jointly won the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley in 1968. By now he had become a citizen of the US and was continually uncovering newer information about human genetics.

// Famous Scientists

Juliane Koepcke

Juliane Koepcke

Juliane Koepcke is a German-Peruvian biologist, who was the lone survivor among the 92 passengers and crew of the ill-fated LANSA Flight 508 that crashed in the Peruvian rainforest on 24 December 1971. Know more about her life in this biography.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a Russian rocket scientist and a pioneer of astronautics. This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, family, personal life, career, achievements, etc.

Henry Cavendish

Henry Cavendish

Henry Cavendish was a theoretical chemist and physicist, renowned for discovery of hydrogen and calculation of the mass of earth. To know more about his childhood, profile, timeline and career read on

Childhood & Early Life

He was born as the youngest child to Hindu parents in a village in West Punjab. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His father worked as the village “patwari” or taxation officer.

His family was poor but his father insisted on providing him a good education. Early on he went to a local school where he was educated under a tree by a village teacher; his father also taught him at home. His family was in fact the only literate one in the whole village.

He went to the D.A.V High School in Multan where he was greatly influenced by his teacher, Ratan Lal. He earned a scholarship to study chemistry at the Punjab University, Lahore.

He completed his B.Sc in 1943 and M.Sc in 1945. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship by the Government of India to study at the University of Liverpool.

He went to England where he worked for a Ph.D degree at the University of Liverpool under the supervision of Roger J.S. Beer. It was the first time he had traveled outside India and this experience was his introduction to Western culture. He earned his Ph.D in 1948.

He continued his post doctoral studies in Zurich at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule with Professor Vladimir Prelog. His professor deeply influenced his thoughts and philosophy towards science.

Career

He received a job offer from Dr. Gordon M Shrum of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, in 1952. He accepted even though the British Columbia Research Council did not offer many facilities for research.

Dr. Shrum was a very inspiring man and Khorana could engage in whatever research he wanted to conduct under him. Along with a group of other researchers, he began to work in the field of phosphate esters and nucleic acids.

In 1960, he accepted a position at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin.

During the 1960s he delved deeper into his experiments in nucleic acids found in RNA, a chemical that translates the genetic information contained in DNA. RNA is composed of four chemical bases represented by the letters A, C, U, and G.

Using chemical synthesis to combine the chemical bases, Khorana deduced that the code for serine was UCU and for leucine it was CUC. He showed that the genetic code consisted of 64 distinct three-letter words.

Biochemist Marshall W. Nirenberg had independently been working on genetics and Khorana confirmed the former’s findings that four different types of nucleotides are arranged on the spiral staircase of the DNA molecule.

He proved that the nucleotide code is transmitted in groups of three—called codons—to the cells. Some codons are responsible for signaling to the cells to start or stop the manufacture of proteins.

He became the Alfred Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1970 and remained there till his retirement in 2007.

He was successful in constructing the first ever artificial gene in 1972. A few years later he made the artificial gene function in a bacteria cell. Genetic engineering has been made possible only due to the ability to synthesize DNA.

During his later years he experimented on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cell signaling pathways of vision in vertebrates. He primarily studied the structure and function of rhodospin, a light sensitive protein found in the eye.

Major Works

Har Gobind Khorana was a world renowned biochemist famous for his work in the field of genetics and DNA. He was the first person to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis.

Awards & Achievements

In 1968 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley, and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".

Personal Life & Legacy

He married Esther Elizabeth Sibler who was of Swiss origin in 1952. The couple had three children. Unfortunately one of their daughters died in 1979. They remained happily married till Esther’s death.

He lived a long life and died of natural causes in 2011 at the age of 89.

// Famous Cambridge University

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was one of the most influential figures in human history. Go through this biography to get details about his life, profile and timeline.

Jane Goodall

Jane Goodall

Jane Goodall is an English Animal Rights activist, famously dubbed as “The Woman who redefined man”. This biography of Jane Goodall provides detailed information about her childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Stephen Fry

Stephen Fry

Stephen Fry is a comedian, actor, author, television and radio presenter. Read the biography and know all about his childhood, career, profile and timeline.

Har Gobind Khorana's awards

YearNameAward

Other

0Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968)

Har Gobind Khorana biography timelines

  • // 9th Jan 1922
    He was born as the youngest child to Hindu parents in a village in West Punjab. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His father worked as the village “patwari” or taxation officer.
  • // 1945
    He completed his B.Sc in 1943 and M.Sc in 1945. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship by the Government of India to study at the University of Liverpool.
  • // 1948
    He went to England where he worked for a Ph.D degree at the University of Liverpool under the supervision of Roger J.S. Beer. It was the first time he had traveled outside India and this experience was his introduction to Western culture. He earned his Ph.D in 1948.
  • // 1952
    He received a job offer from Dr. Gordon M Shrum of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, in 1952. He accepted even though the British Columbia Research Council did not offer many facilities for research.
  • // 1952
    He married Esther Elizabeth Sibler who was of Swiss origin in 1952. The couple had three children. Unfortunately one of their daughters died in 1979. They remained happily married till Esther’s death.
  • // 1960
    In 1960, he accepted a position at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin.
  • // 1968
    In 1968 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley, and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
  • // 1972
    He was successful in constructing the first ever artificial gene in 1972. A few years later he made the artificial gene function in a bacteria cell. Genetic engineering has been made possible only due to the ability to synthesize DNA.
  • // 9th Nov 2011
    He lived a long life and died of natural causes in 2011 at the age of 89.

// Famous Capricorn Celebrities peoples

Elin Nordegren

Elin Nordegren

Elin Nordegren is the ex-wife of Tiger Woods. Check out this biography to know about her childhood, family life, achievements and fun facts about her life.

Zahara Jolie-Pitt

Zahara Jolie-Pitt

Zahara Jolie-Pitt is the adopted daughter of former celebrity couple Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt. Check out this biography to know about her childhood, family life and fun facts about her.

Tarita Teriipaia

Tarita Teriipaia

Tarita Teriipaia is a former French Polynesian actress of Chinese descent who is best known as the third wife of American actor, Marlon Brando.

Kevin Costner

Kevin Costner

Kevin Costner is an American actor, director and singer who is best known for his portrayal of rugged individuals with complex emotions. This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline

Liza Soberano

Liza Soberano

Hope Elizabeth ‘Liza’ Hanley Soberano is a Filipino-American actress and model. This biography profiles her childhood, family, personal life, career, achievements and some interesting facts.

Vy Qwaint

Vy Qwaint

Vy Qwaint is a social media star, best known for creating videos on her self-titled YouTube channel. Check out this biography to know about her family, personal life, including her age, birthday, etc.

Har Gobind Khorana's FAQ

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana birthday?

    Har Gobind Khorana was born at 1922-01-09

  • When was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died at 2011-11-09

  • Where was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died in Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.

  • Which age was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died at age 89

  • Where is Har Gobind Khorana's birth place?

    Har Gobind Khorana was born in Punjab, India

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana nationalities?

    Har Gobind Khorana's nationalities is American

  • Who is Har Gobind Khorana spouses?

    Har Gobind Khorana's spouses is Esther Elizabeth Sibler

  • Who is Har Gobind Khorana childrens?

    Har Gobind Khorana's childrens is Dave Roy, Emily Anne, Julia Elizabeth

  • What was Har Gobind Khorana universities?

    Har Gobind Khorana studied at Cambridge University

  • What was Har Gobind Khorana notable alumnis?

    Har Gobind Khorana's notable alumnis is Cambridge University

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's inventions/discoveries?

    Demonstrated How Genetic Information Is Translated Into Proteins was invented (or discovered) by Har Gobind Khorana

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's religion?

    Har Gobind Khorana's religion is Hindu

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's sun sign?

    Har Gobind Khorana is Capricorn