Har Gobind Khorana
share
Har Gobind Khorana Life & Family, American - π‡πšπ« 𝐆𝐨𝐛𝐒𝐧𝐝 𝐊𝐑𝐨𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐚 Biography
0.0 based on 0 votes
Esther Elizabeth Sibler
Dave RoyEmily AnneJulia Elizabeth
Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Demonstrated How Genetic Information Is Translated Into Proteins
Punjab, India
Hindu
Male
Capricorn
Punjab, India
89
Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.
Show more

Who is Har Gobind Khorana?

undefined - Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana

The man who formed a part of the team which successfully deciphered the genetic codeβ€”the mother of all codesβ€”Har Gobind Khorana was an American biochemist of Indian origins. From the boy who started his primary education studying from a village teacher under a tree to a world renowned biochemist, his life was one long eventful journey. Even though born to poor parents, his family was very keen that their boy gets a good education. He was always a good student and it was no surprise when he won a scholarship to study chemistry at the Punjab University. He shone brilliantly in his studies and was soon off to the University of Liverpool to pursue higher education, again on a scholarship from the Government of India. His interest lay in human genetics and he began experimenting on nucleic acids found in RNA. For his discoveries in the field of DNA which carry the genetic code of all living beings, he jointly won the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley in 1968. By now he had become a citizen of the US and was continually uncovering newer information about human genetics.

Show more

Har Gobind Khorana Childhood & Early Life

He was born as the youngest child to Hindu parents in a village in West Punjab. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His father worked as the village β€œpatwari” or taxation officer.

His family was poor but his father insisted on providing him a good education. Early on he went to a local school where he was educated under a tree by a village teacher; his father also taught him at home. His family was in fact the only literate one in the whole village.

He went to the D.A.V High School in Multan where he was greatly influenced by his teacher, Ratan Lal. He earned a scholarship to study chemistry at the Punjab University, Lahore.

He completed his B.Sc in 1943 and M.Sc in 1945. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship by the Government of India to study at the University of Liverpool.

He went to England where he worked for a Ph.D degree at the University of Liverpool under the supervision of Roger J.S. Beer. It was the first time he had traveled outside India and this experience was his introduction to Western culture. He earned his Ph.D in 1948.

He continued his post doctoral studies in Zurich at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule with Professor Vladimir Prelog. His professor deeply influenced his thoughts and philosophy towards science.

Har Gobind Khorana Career

He received a job offer from Dr. Gordon M Shrum of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, in 1952. He accepted even though the British Columbia Research Council did not offer many facilities for research.

Dr. Shrum was a very inspiring man and Khorana could engage in whatever research he wanted to conduct under him. Along with a group of other researchers, he began to work in the field of phosphate esters and nucleic acids.

In 1960, he accepted a position at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin.

During the 1960s he delved deeper into his experiments in nucleic acids found in RNA, a chemical that translates the genetic information contained in DNA. RNA is composed of four chemical bases represented by the letters A, C, U, and G.

Using chemical synthesis to combine the chemical bases, Khorana deduced that the code for serine was UCU and for leucine it was CUC. He showed that the genetic code consisted of 64 distinct three-letter words.

Biochemist Marshall W. Nirenberg had independently been working on genetics and Khorana confirmed the former’s findings that four different types of nucleotides are arranged on the spiral staircase of the DNA molecule.

He proved that the nucleotide code is transmitted in groups of threeβ€”called codonsβ€”to the cells. Some codons are responsible for signaling to the cells to start or stop the manufacture of proteins.

He became the Alfred Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1970 and remained there till his retirement in 2007.

He was successful in constructing the first ever artificial gene in 1972. A few years later he made the artificial gene function in a bacteria cell. Genetic engineering has been made possible only due to the ability to synthesize DNA.

During his later years he experimented on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cell signaling pathways of vision in vertebrates. He primarily studied the structure and function of rhodospin, a light sensitive protein found in the eye.

Har Gobind Khorana Major Works

Har Gobind Khorana was a world renowned biochemist famous for his work in the field of genetics and DNA. He was the first person to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis.

Har Gobind Khorana Awards & Achievements

In 1968 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley, and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".

Har Gobind Khorana Personal Life & Legacy

He married Esther Elizabeth Sibler who was of Swiss origin in 1952. The couple had three children. Unfortunately one of their daughters died in 1979. They remained happily married till Esther’s death.

He lived a long life and died of natural causes in 2011 at the age of 89.

Show more

Har Gobind Khorana awards

  • Other

    • Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968)
Show more

Har Gobind Khorana biography timelines

  • He was born as the youngest child to Hindu parents in a village in West Punjab. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His father worked as the village β€œpatwari” or taxation officer.
    9th Jan 1922
  • He completed his B.Sc in 1943 and M.Sc in 1945. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship by the Government of India to study at the University of Liverpool.
    1945
  • He went to England where he worked for a Ph.D degree at the University of Liverpool under the supervision of Roger J.S. Beer. It was the first time he had traveled outside India and this experience was his introduction to Western culture. He earned his Ph.D in 1948.
    1948
  • He received a job offer from Dr. Gordon M Shrum of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, in 1952. He accepted even though the British Columbia Research Council did not offer many facilities for research.
    1952
  • He married Esther Elizabeth Sibler who was of Swiss origin in 1952. The couple had three children. Unfortunately one of their daughters died in 1979. They remained happily married till Esther’s death.
    1952
  • In 1960, he accepted a position at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin.
    1960
  • In 1968 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley, and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
    1968
  • He was successful in constructing the first ever artificial gene in 1972. A few years later he made the artificial gene function in a bacteria cell. Genetic engineering has been made possible only due to the ability to synthesize DNA.
    1972
  • He lived a long life and died of natural causes in 2011 at the age of 89.
    9th Nov 2011
Show more

Frequently asked questions about Har Gobind Khorana

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana birthday?

    Har Gobind Khorana was born at January 9, 1922

  • Where is Har Gobind Khorana's birth place?

    Har Gobind Khorana was born in Punjab, India

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana nationalities?

    Har Gobind Khorana's nationalities is American

  • Who is Har Gobind Khorana spouses?

    Har Gobind Khorana's spouses is Esther Elizabeth Sibler

  • Who is Har Gobind Khorana childrens?

    Har Gobind Khorana's childrens is Dave Roy, Emily Anne, Julia Elizabeth

  • What was Har Gobind Khorana universities?

    Har Gobind Khorana studied at Cambridge University university

  • What was Har Gobind Khorana notable alumnis?

    Har Gobind Khorana's notable alumnis is Cambridge University

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's inventions/discoveries?

    Demonstrated How Genetic Information Is Translated Into Proteins was invented (or discovered) by Har Gobind Khorana

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's religion?

    Har Gobind Khorana's religion is Hindu

  • What is Har Gobind Khorana's sun sign?

    Har Gobind Khorana is Capricorn

  • When was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died at November 9, 2011

  • Where was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died in Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.

  • Which age was Har Gobind Khorana died?

    Har Gobind Khorana was died at age 89