Pierre-Simon Laplace - Mathematicians, Timeline and Childhood

Home  ›  French  ›  Pierre-Simon LaplaceMarch 23, 174989 views

0.0 based on 0 rates

Pierre-Simon Laplace's Personal Details

Pierre-Simon Laplace was a French mathematician and astronomer

InformationDetail
BirthdayMarch 23, 1749
Died onMarch 5, 1827
NationalityFrench
FamousScientists, Mathematicians, Astronomers
SpousesMarie-Charlotte de Courty de Romanges
Known asPierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace
Universities
  • University of Caen Lower Normandy
Birth PlaceBeaumont-en-Auge
ReligionCatholicism
GenderMale
Sun SignAries
Born inBeaumont-en-Auge
Famous asScientist
Died at Age77

// Famous Astronomers

Pierre-Simon Laplace's photo

Who is Pierre-Simon Laplace?

Pierre-Simon Laplace was a French mathematician and astronomer who carried out remarkable studies regarding the stability of the solar system and is famously known as the ‘French Newton’. He also did pioneering work in mathematics regarding the theory of probability and statistics which influenced a whole new generation of mathematicians. Born in a poor family, his education was financed by neighbors and he was sent to study theology at the age of 16. But, he soon developed a keen interest in mathematics and was subsequently drawn to physics and astronomy. He served as a professor of mathematics for seven years and also published several scientific papers alongside. Laplace successfully accounted for all the observed deviations of the planets from their theoretical orbits by applying Sir Isaac Newton’s theory of gravitation to the solar system, and he developed a conceptual view of evolutionary change in the structure of the solar system. He also demonstrated the usefulness of probability for interpreting scientific data and applied his own definition of probability to justify the fundamental mathematical manipulations. He restated and developed the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system and also postulated the existence of black holes along with the notion of gravitational collapse

// Famous Mathematicians

Childhood & Early Life

Pierre-Simon Laplace was born on March 23, 1749, in Beaumont-en-Auge, a village in Normandy, France, to Pierre de Laplace, owner of small farms of Maarquis, and his wife, Marie-Anne Sochon.

Despite his family’s poor financial condition, Laplace was able to receive a good education courtesy his wealthy neighbors. His father wanted him to be ordained in the Roman Catholic Church and thus sent him to Caen University to study theology at the age of 16. But, Laplace developed a keen interest in mathematics.

At the age of 19, he dropped out of college and moved to Paris where he worked as a professor of mathematics at the École Militaire from 1769 to 1776. During this time, he published several papers regarding integral calculus, mechanics and physical astronomy, which gained him much acclaim all over France.

Career

In 1771, his early published work focused on differential equations and finite differences. Subsequently, he started to think about the mathematical and philosophical concepts of probability and statistics.

In 1774, his paper titled ‘Mémoire sur la probabilité des causes par les événements’ was published. Two years later, he published another paper which further elaborated his statistical thinking and also began his systematic work on celestial mechanics and the stability of the solar system.

During 1784–87, he worked on the subject of attraction between spheroids which laid the mathematical foundation for the scientific study of heat, magnetism, and electricity.

In 1796, he published ‘Exposition du système du monde (The System of the World)’, which included his ‘nebular hypothesis’.

Between 1799 and 1825, he published five volumes of ‘Traité de mécanique céleste (Celestial Mechanics)’, which summarized the results obtained by his mathematical development and application of the law of gravitation.

In 1812, he published his comprehensive research in mathematics titled ‘Théorie analytique des probabilités (Analytic Theory of Probability)’. Another major work on the theory of probability, titled ‘Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (A Philosophical Essay on Probability)’ was published in 1814.

He theorized the existence of black holes, suggesting that there could be massive stars whose gravity is so great that not even light could escape from its surface. He also stated the fact that the speed of sound in air depends on the heat capacity ratio.

His other discoveries in pure and applied mathematics include Laplace's method for approximating integrals, solution of the linear partial differential equation of the second order, and general proof of the Lagrange reversion theorem.

Major Works

Pierre-Simon Laplace is highly regarded for his influential five-volume treatise ‘Traité de mécanique céleste’ (Celestial mechanics; 1799-1825), which developed a strong mathematical understanding of the motion of the heavenly bodies. He established that the small perturbations observed in the orbital motion of the planets will always remain small, constant and self-correcting.

He formulated Laplace's equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics. The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is also named after him.

Awards & Achievements

In 1806, Laplace was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

In 1822, he was appointed a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Personal Life & Legacy

In March 1788, he married Marie-Charlotte de Courty de Romanges, a girl from Besançon who was twenty years younger to him. The couple had a son, Charles-Émile, and a daughter, Sophie-Suzanne.

Pierre-Simon Laplace died on March 5, 1827, in Paris, France, at the age of 77. After he died, his physician, François Magendie, removed Laplace’s brain which was later displayed in a roving anatomical museum in Britain.

// Famous Scientists

Pierre-Simon Laplace biography timelines

  • // 23rd Mar 1749
    Pierre-Simon Laplace was born on March 23, 1749, in Beaumont-en-Auge, a village in Normandy, France, to Pierre de Laplace, owner of small farms of Maarquis, and his wife, Marie-Anne Sochon.
  • // 1769 To 1776
    At the age of 19, he dropped out of college and moved to Paris where he worked as a professor of mathematics at the École Militaire from 1769 to 1776. During this time, he published several papers regarding integral calculus, mechanics and physical astronomy, which gained him much acclaim all over France.
  • // 1771
    In 1771, his early published work focused on differential equations and finite differences. Subsequently, he started to think about the mathematical and philosophical concepts of probability and statistics.
  • // 1774
    In 1774, his paper titled ‘Mémoire sur la probabilité des causes par les événements’ was published. Two years later, he published another paper which further elaborated his statistical thinking and also began his systematic work on celestial mechanics and the stability of the solar system.
  • // 1784
    During 1784–87, he worked on the subject of attraction between spheroids which laid the mathematical foundation for the scientific study of heat, magnetism, and electricity.
  • // Mar 1788
    In March 1788, he married Marie-Charlotte de Courty de Romanges, a girl from Besançon who was twenty years younger to him. The couple had a son, Charles-Émile, and a daughter, Sophie-Suzanne.
  • // 1796
    In 1796, he published ‘Exposition du système du monde (The System of the World)’, which included his ‘nebular hypothesis’.
  • // 1799 To 1825
    Between 1799 and 1825, he published five volumes of ‘Traité de mécanique céleste (Celestial Mechanics)’, which summarized the results obtained by his mathematical development and application of the law of gravitation.
  • // 1799 To 1825
    Pierre-Simon Laplace is highly regarded for his influential five-volume treatise ‘Traité de mécanique céleste’ (Celestial mechanics; 1799-1825), which developed a strong mathematical understanding of the motion of the heavenly bodies. He established that the small perturbations observed in the orbital motion of the planets will always remain small, constant and self-correcting.
  • // 1806
    In 1806, Laplace was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
  • // 1812 To 1814
    In 1812, he published his comprehensive research in mathematics titled ‘Théorie analytique des probabilités (Analytic Theory of Probability)’. Another major work on the theory of probability, titled ‘Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (A Philosophical Essay on Probability)’ was published in 1814.
  • // 1822
    In 1822, he was appointed a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  • // 5th Mar 1827
    Pierre-Simon Laplace died on March 5, 1827, in Paris, France, at the age of 77. After he died, his physician, François Magendie, removed Laplace’s brain which was later displayed in a roving anatomical museum in Britain.

// Aries Celebrities

Pierre-Simon Laplace's FAQ

  • What is Pierre-Simon Laplace birthday?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace was born at 1749-03-23

  • When was Pierre-Simon Laplace died?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace was died at 1827-03-05

  • Where was Pierre-Simon Laplace died?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace was died in Paris

  • Which age was Pierre-Simon Laplace died?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace was died at age 77

  • Where is Pierre-Simon Laplace's birth place?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace was born in Beaumont-en-Auge

  • What is Pierre-Simon Laplace nationalities?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace's nationalities is French

  • Who is Pierre-Simon Laplace spouses?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace's spouses is Marie-Charlotte de Courty de Romanges

  • What was Pierre-Simon Laplace universities?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace studied at University of Caen Lower Normandy

  • What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's religion?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace's religion is Catholicism

  • What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's sun sign?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace is Aries

  • How famous is Pierre-Simon Laplace?

    Pierre-Simon Laplace is famouse as Scientist