Boris Pasternak

Boris Pasternak - Writers, Life Achievements and Personal Life

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Boris Pasternak's Personal Details

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian novelist, poet and translator

InformationDetail
BirthdayFebruary 10, 1890
Died onMay 30, 1960
NationalityRussian
FamousNobel Laureates In Literature, Writers, Poets, Novelists, Poets, Writers
SpousesYevgenia Vladimirovna Lourie, Zinaida Nikolaevna Neigauz
SiblingsJosephine Pasternak, Lydia Pasternak Slater
Known asBoris Leonidovich Pasternak
ChildrensEvgenij Pasternak, Leonid Pasternak
Universities
  • Moscow Conservatory
  • University of Marburg
  • Moscow State University
Birth PlaceMoscow
Born CountryRussia
GenderMale
FatherLeonid Pasternak
MotherRosa Kaufman
Sun SignAquarius
Born inMoscow
Famous asPoet & Writer
Died at Age70

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Boris Pasternak's photo

Who is Boris Pasternak?

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian novelist, poet and translator. His ‘My Sister, Life’, a collection of his poetries published in 1917, remains one of the most remarkable books on poetries in Russian. Some of his other notable works on poetry are ‘Twin in the Clouds’, ‘On Early Trains’, ‘Selected Poems’ and ‘When the Weather Clears’. He translated many stage plays that were highly acknowledged by Russian audiences. Some such works are that of William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Pedro Calderón de la Barca and Friedrich Schiller. As the author of the novel ‘Doctor Zhivago’, he became renowned internationally. The novel revolved around the Russian Revolution of 1905 and World War I. The novel was denied publication in USSR because of its free-spirited viewpoint on the socialist state. However, it was published after being smuggled to Milan. ‘Doctor Zhivago’ became a best-seller internationally but in USSR it was sold secretly. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, but had to forgo the award as the ‘Communist Party of the Soviet Union’ was embarrassed by such move and also showed its resentment. Later in 1988 Pasternak’s descendents accepted the award.

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Childhood & Early Life

He was born on 10 February, 1890 (Old Style, 29 January) in Moscow, Russia, in an affluent Russian Jewish family to Leonid Pasternak and Rosa Kaufman as one of their four children.

His father was a Post-Impressionist painter and professor at the ‘Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture’ and his mother was a concert pianist.

His parents were involved in the Tolstoyan Movement. His father created several illustrations for novelist Tolstoy’s books. Tolstoy was a family friend and when Tolstoy escaped home and finally died, Leonid Pasternak along with Boris went to see Tolstoy and created a drawing of the novelist on his deathbed.

Many renowned personalities including philosophers, composer and pianists, poets and novelists visited the Pasternak's household regularly. Some of them were Alexander Scriabin, Rainer Maria Rilke, Sergei Rachmaninoff and Lev Shestov.

He began his academic life in a German Gymnasium in Moscow. Inspired by composer and pianist Alexander Scriabin, he joined the ‘Moscow Conservatory’ in 1904 and studied musical composition till 1910.

In1910 he joined the ‘German University of Marburg’. There he studied under the guidance of Neo-Kantian philosophers like Paul Natorp, Nicolai Hartmann and Hermann Cohen.

Career

Though few of his poetry collections including ‘Twin in the Clouds’ (1914), ‘Over the Barriers’ (1916) and ‘Themes and Variations’ (1917) were published, success and recognition eluded him.

He became romantically involved with Ida Wissotzkaya who belonged to a family of wealthy tea merchants. He met her in 1912 in Marburg. When the damsel turned down his marriage proposal due to family pressure, he expressed his emotions in the 1917 poem, ‘Marburg’.

At the time of the First World War, he joined a chemical factory in Vsevolodovo-Vilve and taught as well. When the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended, unlike his other family members, he chose to stay back in Russia and joined the library of the Soviet commissariat of education.

He penned down some Hermetic pieces that included the lyrical masterpiece, ‘Rupture’ in 1921.

His book of poetry collections, ‘My Sister, Life’ was published in 1922. It not only established him as one of the prominent poets of the Russian language, but also made him a new role model among aspiring poets. His revolutionary works in the collection reoriented the poetry of many others.

At the turn of 1920s, he wanted to make his works more comprehensible for one and all and in this pursuit he re-wrote many of his works. He penned two long poems and also endeavoured into prose writing that included many autobiographical stories. A few remarkable ones are ‘Safe Conduct’ (1931), ‘Second Birth’ (1932) and ‘The Last Summer’ (1934).

In 1937, during the trial of Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and General Iona Yakir, he refused to sign a statement, which was consent for death penalty for the defendants. It was forwarded by the ‘Union of Soviet Writers’ to all its members. The chairman of the Union, Vladimir Stavski was terrified that he would be punished for Pasternak's dissent so he tried to force Pasternak to sign the statement but he refused. The fear of a possible arrest made his pregnant wife Zinaida Pasternak extremely upset but he refused to bow down.

He instead made a direct appeal to Stalin and conveyed his family’s strong Tolstoyan convictions. It is believed that Stalin struck off Pasternak’s name from the execution list at the time of the ‘Great Purge’. Pasternak was never incarcerated by the Soviet secret police.

In 1943, in the midst of the Second World War, he obtained permission and visited the fronts to meet the soldiers. He mingled with them and cheered them up by reading out his poems.

He completed his masterpiece, ‘Doctor Zhivago’ in 1956, with some of its parts written in as early as 1910s and 1920s. ‘Novy Mir’ refused to publish the novel as the novel defied socialist realism. Some of its portions were considered anti-Soviet.

Journalist, Sergio d'Angelo visited Soviet Union at the behest of the Italian Communist Party in March 1956. Sergio d'Angelo was also in the lookout for new literary works in the Soviet as commissioned to him by Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, a publisher of Milan. After Sergio d'Angelo came to know about ‘Doctor Zhivago’, he approached Pasternak. It was published by Feltrinelli’s company and released in November 1957.

After a closed door trial, the ‘Union of Soviet Writers’ declared that they have ousted Pasternak from the Union and signed a petition to the ‘Politburo’ to revoke his Soviet citizenship and deport him.

Published in 1959, ‘When the Weather Clears’ was his last book on poetries. In 1959 he began his work on a stage play trilogy, ‘The Blind Beauty’, but before he could finish the first play, he became a victim of terminal lung cancer.

Posthumously he was reinstated by the ‘Union of Soviet Writers’ in 1987 which ultimately paved way for publication of ‘Doctor Zhivago’ in the Soviet Union.

Major Works

His novel, ‘Doctor Zhivago’ garnered widespread success internationally and owing to its huge popularity and public demand it was swiftly translated and published in English by Manya Harari and Max Hayward and released in August 1958. The English version of the novel charted at the top of the bestseller list of ‘The New York Times’ for twenty six weeks during 1958 to 1959.

Awards & Achievements

He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, but following the opposition from the ‘Communist Party of the Soviet Union’, he refused to accept the award which was later received by his son Evgenii in December 1989.

Personal Life & Legacy

He married Evgeniya Lurye in 1922.

He got involved in a relationship with Zinaida Neigauz in 1932 and later both of them divorced their respective spouses to marry each other.

He had two sons, Evgenii and Leonid.

He had an extramarital relationship with single mother Olga Ivinskaya, who he met in October 1946. Even though he never abandoned Zinaida, he maintained his relation with Olga throughout his life.

He succumbed to lung cancer on May 30, 1960 after which ‘Panikhida’ was carried out covertly in Pasternak's dacha. His funeral was performed in Peredelkino which was attended by thousands of admirers.

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Boris Pasternak biography timelines

  • // 10th Feb 1890
    He was born on 10 February, 1890 (Old Style, 29 January) in Moscow, Russia, in an affluent Russian Jewish family to Leonid Pasternak and Rosa Kaufman as one of their four children.
  • // 1904 To 1910
    He began his academic life in a German Gymnasium in Moscow. Inspired by composer and pianist Alexander Scriabin, he joined the ‘Moscow Conservatory’ in 1904 and studied musical composition till 1910.
  • // 1910
    In1910 he joined the ‘German University of Marburg’. There he studied under the guidance of Neo-Kantian philosophers like Paul Natorp, Nicolai Hartmann and Hermann Cohen.
  • // 1912 To 1917
    He became romantically involved with Ida Wissotzkaya who belonged to a family of wealthy tea merchants. He met her in 1912 in Marburg. When the damsel turned down his marriage proposal due to family pressure, he expressed his emotions in the 1917 poem, ‘Marburg’.
  • // 1917
    At the time of the First World War, he joined a chemical factory in Vsevolodovo-Vilve and taught as well. When the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended, unlike his other family members, he chose to stay back in Russia and joined the library of the Soviet commissariat of education.
  • // 1921
    He penned down some Hermetic pieces that included the lyrical masterpiece, ‘Rupture’ in 1921.
  • // 1922
    His book of poetry collections, ‘My Sister, Life’ was published in 1922. It not only established him as one of the prominent poets of the Russian language, but also made him a new role model among aspiring poets. His revolutionary works in the collection reoriented the poetry of many others.
  • // 1922
    He married Evgeniya Lurye in 1922.
  • // 1932
    He got involved in a relationship with Zinaida Neigauz in 1932 and later both of them divorced their respective spouses to marry each other.
  • // 1937
    In 1937, during the trial of Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and General Iona Yakir, he refused to sign a statement, which was consent for death penalty for the defendants. It was forwarded by the ‘Union of Soviet Writers’ to all its members. The chairman of the Union, Vladimir Stavski was terrified that he would be punished for Pasternak's dissent so he tried to force Pasternak to sign the statement but he refused. The fear of a possible arrest made his pregnant wife Zinaida Pasternak extremely upset but he refused to bow down.
  • // 1943
    In 1943, in the midst of the Second World War, he obtained permission and visited the fronts to meet the soldiers. He mingled with them and cheered them up by reading out his poems.
  • // Oct 1946
    He had an extramarital relationship with single mother Olga Ivinskaya, who he met in October 1946. Even though he never abandoned Zinaida, he maintained his relation with Olga throughout his life.
  • // 1956
    He completed his masterpiece, ‘Doctor Zhivago’ in 1956, with some of its parts written in as early as 1910s and 1920s. ‘Novy Mir’ refused to publish the novel as the novel defied socialist realism. Some of its portions were considered anti-Soviet.
  • // Mar 1956 To Nov 1957
    Journalist, Sergio d'Angelo visited Soviet Union at the behest of the Italian Communist Party in March 1956. Sergio d'Angelo was also in the lookout for new literary works in the Soviet as commissioned to him by Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, a publisher of Milan. After Sergio d'Angelo came to know about ‘Doctor Zhivago’, he approached Pasternak. It was published by Feltrinelli’s company and released in November 1957.
  • // 1958 To Dec 1989
    He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, but following the opposition from the ‘Communist Party of the Soviet Union’, he refused to accept the award which was later received by his son Evgenii in December 1989.
  • // 1959
    Published in 1959, ‘When the Weather Clears’ was his last book on poetries. In 1959 he began his work on a stage play trilogy, ‘The Blind Beauty’, but before he could finish the first play, he became a victim of terminal lung cancer.
  • // 30th May 1960
    He succumbed to lung cancer on May 30, 1960 after which ‘Panikhida’ was carried out covertly in Pasternak's dacha. His funeral was performed in Peredelkino which was attended by thousands of admirers.
  • // 1987
    Posthumously he was reinstated by the ‘Union of Soviet Writers’ in 1987 which ultimately paved way for publication of ‘Doctor Zhivago’ in the Soviet Union.

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Boris Pasternak's FAQ

  • What is Boris Pasternak birthday?

    Boris Pasternak was born at 1890-02-10

  • When was Boris Pasternak died?

    Boris Pasternak was died at 1960-05-30

  • Where was Boris Pasternak died?

    Boris Pasternak was died in Peredelkino, USSR

  • Which age was Boris Pasternak died?

    Boris Pasternak was died at age 70

  • Where is Boris Pasternak's birth place?

    Boris Pasternak was born in Moscow

  • What is Boris Pasternak nationalities?

    Boris Pasternak's nationalities is Russian

  • Who is Boris Pasternak spouses?

    Boris Pasternak's spouses is Yevgenia Vladimirovna Lourie, Zinaida Nikolaevna Neigauz

  • Who is Boris Pasternak siblings?

    Boris Pasternak's siblings is Josephine Pasternak, Lydia Pasternak Slater

  • Who is Boris Pasternak childrens?

    Boris Pasternak's childrens is Evgenij Pasternak, Leonid Pasternak

  • What was Boris Pasternak universities?

    Boris Pasternak studied at Moscow Conservatory, University of Marburg, Moscow State University

  • Who is Boris Pasternak's father?

    Boris Pasternak's father is Leonid Pasternak

  • Who is Boris Pasternak's mother?

    Boris Pasternak's mother is Rosa Kaufman

  • What is Boris Pasternak's sun sign?

    Boris Pasternak is Aquarius

  • How famous is Boris Pasternak?

    Boris Pasternak is famouse as Poet & Writer