Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte - Emperor of the French, Career and Facts

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Napoleon Bonaparte's Personal Details

Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution

InformationDetail
BirthdayAugust 15, 1769
Died onMay 5, 1821
NationalityFrench
FamousLeft Handed, Historical Personalities, Emperors & Kings, Political Leaders, Revolutionaries, Military Leaders, ENTJ, Emperor of the French
SpousesJoséphine de Beauharnais
SiblingsLouis Bonaparte
Known asNapoleon I
ChildrensCharles Léon, Count Alexandre Joseph Colonna-Walewski, Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon II
Birth Place Ajaccio
ReligionRoman Catholicism
GenderMale
FatherCarlo Buonaparte
MotherLetizia Ramolino
Sun SignLeo
Born inAjaccio
Famous asEmperor of the French
Died at Age51

Napoleon Bonaparte's photo

Who is Napoleon Bonaparte?

The latter years of the French Revolution saw the emergence of a man who played a quintessential role in shaping the future of France – Napoleon Bonaparte. Born as Napoleone Buonapart, he made a huge impact and is considered one of the most famed military and political leaders. During his time, he not only served as the first Consul but even became the first monarch of France to bear the title of the Emperor. What distinguished him from his contemporaries was his techniques that made him win over battles even against enemies who were numerically superior to him. Due to this, he is often regarded as the greatest military commander of all time. Another interesting aspect of his rule was the political and social reforms instituted by him, which pulled the country from the perils of bankruptcy. His Napoleonic Code combined the basic tenets of old Roman law with modern French statutes. The code served as the precedent for subsequent codification of criminal and commercial laws in France and elsewhere.

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Childhood & Early Life

Born to Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer, and his wife, Letizia Ramolino, Napoleone Buonaparte was the fourth and the second surviving child of the couple.

Academically brilliant, young Buonaparte completed his preliminary education from a France’s College d'Autun before applying at the �cole Militaire in Paris. However, his two-years term was cut short to one year post his father’s demise.

Career

Trained as an artillery officer, he joined as second lieutenant in La F�re artillery regiment in 1785. Serving at the Revolution in Corsica, he was promoted to the rank of a captain in the regular army in 1792.

In 1793, following a split with Paoli, the nationalist Corsican leader, he along with his family, shifted base to France. There he joined his regiment at Nice. It was his pro-republican pamphlet, Le souper de Beaucaire that earned him the admiration and support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.

At the age of 24, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and was put in charge of the artillery of France’s Army of Italy. Adhering to his plans, the French army slowly and steadily captured the north, east and west coast in the Battle of Saorgio.

The fall of the Jacobins led to the rise of Maximilien de Robespierre, thus initiating the dictatorship of the Committee of Public Safety. In 1795, the Directory took over the control of the country.

Bonaparte who had supported the Directory all through came under their good books and was named Commander of the Army of the Interior. Additionally, he was made trusted advisor to the Directory on military matters.

In 1796, he took over the working of the Army of Italy and transformed the once underfed-disgruntled army into a strong military force that helped expand the French empire by winning numerous battles

Post the great victory over Austria, he moved over to Middle East, occupying Egypt. Meanwhile, he also weakened the British Empire by upsetting their trade route with India.

Just as much his image was enhanced in his initial accomplishments, the battle of Nile tarnished it all as Admiral Horatio nelson crushed his army. Also, the same resulted in the crushing defeat of France against the coalition formed by Britain, Austria, Russia and Turkey.

Returning to France, he made plans with Emmanuel Sieyes that would allow them to retain their topmost position in the government. He formed a new constitution which created position of the first consul.

In 1800, he became the first consul of the French administration and brought about reforms in various sectors including economy, legal system and education. He made Roman Catholicism the state religion and introduced the Napoleonic Code.

He was involved in the creation of Bank of France and supervised the centralisation of the government. Such was the escalating popularity of this French military and political leader that he was elected consul for life in 1802 and in 1804 made the Emperor of France.

Meanwhile, the negotiated peace lasted for about three years after which France was at war with Britain, Russia and Austria. While it lost to British at Trafalgar, the French army registered a victory against both Austria and Russia at Austerlitz.

In 1810, defeat of his army resulted in the fall of his empire. The country was in bad shape as both the country’s military budget and military officials were devastated. The news spread like wildfire and with increasing international pressure and lack of resources, he surrendered to the allied force in 1814.

Despite being exiled to Elba, he did not lose his will power and soon escaped to Paris, where after a short stay, he returned to power. Though he did manage to make a magnificent comeback at Belgium where he defeated the Prussians, at Waterloo, he suffered a blow once again with a defeat against the British.

In 1815, he resigned from the powerful position that he held. Though he did make an offer that his son, Napolean II to be named the emperor, the coalition declined the same.

The British government, for the fear of his return, sent him to a remote island of St. Helena in the southern Atlantic. Though he was free to do what he pleased, the routine life did not get very well with this military leader.

Major Milestones

He served as the first Consul of France and was later became the Emperor of France. During his time, he brought about major reforms in the country, such as introduction of higher education, establishment centralized government, foundation of Bank of France, tax code, road and sewer systems. He reworked the laws of France which is why his civil code was known as Napoleonic Code

The royal decoration Legion of Honor was instituted by him to honour people with civilian and military achievements. Till date, it serves as the highest decoration of France.

Personal Life & Legacy

He married Jos�phine de Beauharnais, widow of General Alexandre de Beauharnais in 1796. She had two children from her previous marriage. The union did not last long and the couple separated in 1810.

He then tied the knot with Marie-Louise, daughter of the emperor of Austria, who bore him a son, Napolean II.

His health started deteriorating during his last days, which was caused by the damp and wretched living conditions.

He finally succumbed to the rapidly failing health on February 5, 1821. An autopsy later on confirmed that he was suffering from stomach cancer. He was initially cremated at St Helena after which he was transported to Paris, where a state funeral was held. His remains were entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides

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Napoleon Bonaparte biography timelines

  • // 15th Aug 1769
    Born to Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer, and his wife, Letizia Ramolino, Napoleone Buonaparte was the fourth and the second surviving child of the couple.
  • // 1792
    Trained as an artillery officer, he joined as second lieutenant in La F�re artillery regiment in 1785. Serving at the Revolution in Corsica, he was promoted to the rank of a captain in the regular army in 1792.
  • // 1793
    In 1793, following a split with Paoli, the nationalist Corsican leader, he along with his family, shifted base to France. There he joined his regiment at Nice. It was his pro-republican pamphlet, Le souper de Beaucaire that earned him the admiration and support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.
  • // 1795
    The fall of the Jacobins led to the rise of Maximilien de Robespierre, thus initiating the dictatorship of the Committee of Public Safety. In 1795, the Directory took over the control of the country.
  • // 1796
    In 1796, he took over the working of the Army of Italy and transformed the once underfed-disgruntled army into a strong military force that helped expand the French empire by winning numerous battles
  • // 1796 To 1810
    He married Jos�phine de Beauharnais, widow of General Alexandre de Beauharnais in 1796. She had two children from her previous marriage. The union did not last long and the couple separated in 1810.
  • // 1800
    In 1800, he became the first consul of the French administration and brought about reforms in various sectors including economy, legal system and education. He made Roman Catholicism the state religion and introduced the Napoleonic Code.
  • // 1802
    He was involved in the creation of Bank of France and supervised the centralisation of the government. Such was the escalating popularity of this French military and political leader that he was elected consul for life in 1802 and in 1804 made the Emperor of France.
  • // 1810
    In 1810, defeat of his army resulted in the fall of his empire. The country was in bad shape as both the country’s military budget and military officials were devastated. The news spread like wildfire and with increasing international pressure and lack of resources, he surrendered to the allied force in 1814.
  • // 1815
    In 1815, he resigned from the powerful position that he held. Though he did make an offer that his son, Napolean II to be named the emperor, the coalition declined the same.
  • // 5th Feb 1821
    He finally succumbed to the rapidly failing health on February 5, 1821. An autopsy later on confirmed that he was suffering from stomach cancer. He was initially cremated at St Helena after which he was transported to Paris, where a state funeral was held. His remains were entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides

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Napoleon Bonaparte's FAQ

  • What is Napoleon Bonaparte birthday?

    Napoleon Bonaparte was born at 1769-08-15

  • When was Napoleon Bonaparte died?

    Napoleon Bonaparte was died at 1821-05-05

  • Where was Napoleon Bonaparte died?

    Napoleon Bonaparte was died in Longwood

  • Which age was Napoleon Bonaparte died?

    Napoleon Bonaparte was died at age 51

  • Where is Napoleon Bonaparte's birth place?

    Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio

  • What is Napoleon Bonaparte nationalities?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's nationalities is French

  • Who is Napoleon Bonaparte spouses?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's spouses is Joséphine de Beauharnais

  • Who is Napoleon Bonaparte siblings?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's siblings is Louis Bonaparte

  • Who is Napoleon Bonaparte childrens?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's childrens is Charles Léon, Count Alexandre Joseph Colonna-Walewski, Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon II

  • What is Napoleon Bonaparte's religion?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's religion is Roman Catholicism

  • Who is Napoleon Bonaparte's father?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's father is Carlo Buonaparte

  • Who is Napoleon Bonaparte's mother?

    Napoleon Bonaparte's mother is Letizia Ramolino

  • What is Napoleon Bonaparte's sun sign?

    Napoleon Bonaparte is Leo

  • How famous is Napoleon Bonaparte?

    Napoleon Bonaparte is famouse as Emperor of the French