Andre Breton

Andre Breton - Founder of Surrealism, Career and Family

Violet FieldHome › FrenchAndre BretonFebruary 19, 1896136 views

0 based on 0 rates
Andre Breton Biography Stories 

Andre Breton's Personal Details

Andre Breton was a famous French writer and poet

InformationDetail
BirthdayFebruary 19, 1896
Died onSeptember 28, 1966
NationalityFrench
FamousAtheists, Writers, Poets, Founder of Surrealism
SpousesElisa Claro, Jacqueline Lamba, Simone Kahn
ChildrensAube Breton
Birth PlaceTinchebray, Orne, France
GenderMale
Sun SignAquarius
Born inTinchebray, Orne, France
Famous asFounder of Surrealism
Died at Age70

Andre Breton's photo

Who is Andre Breton?

Andre Breton was a distinguished writer and poet from France. He was one of the few personalities who reinforced and led the Surrealist movement along with other avant-gardes. He is best-known for his ‘Surrealist Manifesto’, encouraging free expression and release of the subconscious mind. He is also known for his volumes of essays and poetry. After a brief stint in the army during World War I, he joined the Dadaist group and began delving into ‘surrealistic automatism’. He studied a number of psychoanalytical theories and studied the concept of the ‘unconsciousness’ that helped him with his writing. Through most part of his career, he wrote radical and metaphysical tracts, one of them being ‘Nadja’. The recurrent themes in most of his novels indicate a sort of ‘liberation of the mind’ and include the hackneyed as well as fantasy elements. In addition to his career, he mentored many budding Surrealists and continued to advocate the Surrealist movement through literature and art. Career apart, he married thrice, indulged in Freudian psychology and was known for his idiosyncratic dressing habits.

// Famous Poets

Charles Bukowski

Charles Bukowski

Charles Bukowski was a German-born American novelist, short story writer and poet. With this biography, learn in details about his childhood, life, works, career and timeline

Abdolkarim Soroush

Abdolkarim Soroush

Abdolkarim Soroush is a reformer, thinker, and Rumi scholar belonging to Iran. Soroush is also a prominent figure in Iran’s religious movement. This biography provides detailed information about her childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu was an Indian freedom fighter and poet. Read this brief biography to find more on her life.

Childhood & Early Life

Andre Breton was born into a working-class family in Tinchebray, Normandy, France.

He studied medicine and psychiatry as a young boy and started to take a particular interest in the study of mental sicknesses. He never qualified as a psychoanalyst because his education was disturbed by the imminent World War I.

During the war, he worked in a number of neurological/psychiatric wards in Nantes. At the same time, he studied the works of Sigmund Freud, whom he would meet later in his life.

In his early years, he was extremely influenced by the works of poets, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and writers like Guillaume Apollinaire. In 1916, he joined the Dadaist movement in France along with Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp.

Career

In 1919, he established the journal ‘Litterature’ along with Philippe Soupault and Louis Aragon. The subsequent year, he authored his work of literary ‘Surrealism’ titled ‘Les Champs magnetiques’ (Magnetic Fields). This work introduced the surrealist automatic writing practice.

In 1924, he founded the Bureau of Surrealist Research and also published one of his literary masterpieces, the ‘Surrealist Manifesto’. The same year, he also became the editor for the magazine, ‘La Revolution surrealiste’, during which he was associated with numerous writers such as Robert Desnos, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault and the like.

From 1927 to 1933, he served the French Communist Party, after which he was debarred from the group. It was during this time he penned one of his greatest novels, ‘Nadja’.

In 1935, he attended the ‘International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture’, where he got into a tiff with other Surrealists. As a result, all the Surrealists were removed from the Congress.

His poem, ‘Fata Morgana’ was published in 1939 after collaborating with artist Wifredo Lam, who was given the responsibility to illustrate his poem.

At the onset of World War II, he was enlisted in the medical corps of the French Army. The Vichy government disqualified his writings, during which time; he escaped from France to the United States, in 1941.

He wrote ‘Arcane 17’, in 1944 after he traveled to the Gaspe Peninsula in Quebec, Canada. Two years later, he returned to Paris, where he openly opposed French expansionism and also mentored a second group of up-and-coming Surrealists.

From 1953 to 1958, he penned numerous works including ‘La Cle des Champs’, ‘Farouche a quatre feuilles’, ‘Manifestos of Surrealisms’ and ‘L’Art Magique’ and ‘Constellations’.

From 1959 to 1965, he organized a display in Paris, authored the book, ‘Le la’ and published the last of his works, ‘La Surrealisme et la Peinture’.

Major Works

‘The ‘Surrealist Manifesto’ was published in both, 1924 and 1929. Considered one of his ‘largest’ works, the manifesto defines surrealism as ‘pure psychic automatism’. Penned with a lot of absurdist comicality, the publication also outlined the influence of the Dada movement, which heralded the ‘Surrealist’ movement. The two books became popular among Surrealist circles and his writing even spawned a third manifesto, which was never published.

‘Nadja’, his second novel, published in 1928, is regarded as one of his most iconic works. This novel was based on his private exchanges with a woman called ‘Nadja’. A semi-autobiography, the book came to be known as one of his best-works in his career and was also featured in Le Monde’s list of ‘100 Books of the Century’.

Personal Life & Legacy

Breton married Simone Collinet on September 15, 1921. He divorced her after ten years.

He married his second wife, Jacqueline Lamba, a painter. She was the theme of a number of his poems and he loved her dearly. He had his only child with Jacqueline; a daughter called Aube.

He married a Chilean woman, Elisa Claro, whom he met during his exile in the United States. She stayed with him till his death.

He passed away at the age of 70 and was interred at the Cimetiere des Batignolles, in Paris.

After his death, Elisa and Breton’s daughter, Aube, permitted pupils and investigators with the right to use his personal library and collections at home.

A number of his writings and works were published posthumously, carrying forward his legacy and his ideologies on Surrealism. Works such as ‘Selected Poems’, ‘Perspective Cavaliere’ and ‘Poems of Andre Breton’ were published after his death.

Nine of his unpublished texts and the famous ‘Manifeste du Surrealism’ were auctioned, in 2008.

Trivia

This famous French Surrealist author and poet was an avid collector of art and other relics, collecting over 5,300 items over his lifetime, including paintings, furniture, drawings, photographs, scripts and Oceanic art.

// Famous Writers

Joyce Meyer

Joyce Meyer

Joyce Meyer is a Christian author and speaker. This biography provides detailed information about her childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline

Charles Bukowski

Charles Bukowski

Charles Bukowski was a German-born American novelist, short story writer and poet. With this biography, learn in details about his childhood, life, works, career and timeline

Jack Welch

Jack Welch

Jack Welch is an American business executive famous for serving as the CEO of General Electric. This biography of Jack Welch provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Andre Breton biography timelines

  • // 19th Feb 1896
    Andre Breton was born into a working-class family in Tinchebray, Normandy, France.
  • // 1916
    In his early years, he was extremely influenced by the works of poets, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and writers like Guillaume Apollinaire. In 1916, he joined the Dadaist movement in France along with Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp.
  • // 1919
    In 1919, he established the journal ‘Litterature’ along with Philippe Soupault and Louis Aragon. The subsequent year, he authored his work of literary ‘Surrealism’ titled ‘Les Champs magnetiques’ (Magnetic Fields). This work introduced the surrealist automatic writing practice.
  • // 15th Sep 1921
    Breton married Simone Collinet on September 15, 1921. He divorced her after ten years.
  • // 1924
    In 1924, he founded the Bureau of Surrealist Research and also published one of his literary masterpieces, the ‘Surrealist Manifesto’. The same year, he also became the editor for the magazine, ‘La Revolution surrealiste’, during which he was associated with numerous writers such as Robert Desnos, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault and the like.
  • // 1927 To 1933
    From 1927 to 1933, he served the French Communist Party, after which he was debarred from the group. It was during this time he penned one of his greatest novels, ‘Nadja’.
  • // 1935
    In 1935, he attended the ‘International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture’, where he got into a tiff with other Surrealists. As a result, all the Surrealists were removed from the Congress.
  • // 1939
    His poem, ‘Fata Morgana’ was published in 1939 after collaborating with artist Wifredo Lam, who was given the responsibility to illustrate his poem.
  • // 1941
    At the onset of World War II, he was enlisted in the medical corps of the French Army. The Vichy government disqualified his writings, during which time; he escaped from France to the United States, in 1941.
  • // 1944
    He wrote ‘Arcane 17’, in 1944 after he traveled to the Gaspe Peninsula in Quebec, Canada. Two years later, he returned to Paris, where he openly opposed French expansionism and also mentored a second group of up-and-coming Surrealists.
  • // 1953 To 1958
    From 1953 to 1958, he penned numerous works including ‘La Cle des Champs’, ‘Farouche a quatre feuilles’, ‘Manifestos of Surrealisms’ and ‘L’Art Magique’ and ‘Constellations’.
  • // 1959 To 1965
    From 1959 to 1965, he organized a display in Paris, authored the book, ‘Le la’ and published the last of his works, ‘La Surrealisme et la Peinture’.
  • // 28th Sep 1966
    He passed away at the age of 70 and was interred at the Cimetiere des Batignolles, in Paris.

// Famous Atheists

Jack Black

Jack Black

Jack Black is a renowned American actor-producer and voice artist. Explore this biography to learn more about his profile, childhood, career and timeline

Brad Pitt

Brad Pitt

Brad Pitt is a famous American actor, known for his movies, ‘Ocean’s Eleven’, ‘The Curious Case of Benjamin Button’, and ‘World War Z’. This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, profile, career and timeline

Morgan Freeman

Morgan Freeman

Morgan Freeman is an Academy Award winning actor known for his work in movies like ‘Street Smart’, ‘Driving Miss Daisy’ and ‘Million Dollar Baby’. This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Robert Smith

Robert Smith

Robert Smith is an English musician and the lead singer of the British rock band, ‘The Cure.’ This biography of Robert Smith gives detailed information on his profile, childhood, life and timeline.

Joaquin Phoenix

Joaquin Phoenix

Joaquin Phoenix is a famed actor of Hollywood known for the films, ‘Walk the Line’ and ‘Gladiator’. Go through this biography to know in details about his life, works & timeline.

Richard Dawkins

Richard Dawkins

Richard Dawkins is an English ethologist and evolutionary biologist. This biography of Richard Dawkins provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Andre Breton's FAQ

  • What is Andre Breton birthday?

    Andre Breton was born at 1896-02-19

  • When was Andre Breton died?

    Andre Breton was died at 1966-09-28

  • Where was Andre Breton died?

    Andre Breton was died in Paris

  • Which age was Andre Breton died?

    Andre Breton was died at age 70

  • Where is Andre Breton's birth place?

    Andre Breton was born in Tinchebray, Orne, France

  • What is Andre Breton nationalities?

    Andre Breton's nationalities is French

  • Who is Andre Breton spouses?

    Andre Breton's spouses is Elisa Claro, Jacqueline Lamba, Simone Kahn

  • Who is Andre Breton childrens?

    Andre Breton's childrens is Aube Breton

  • What is Andre Breton's sun sign?

    Andre Breton is Aquarius

  • How famous is Andre Breton?

    Andre Breton is famouse as Founder of Surrealism